8_9_11_Lecture_Notes

8_9_11_Lecture_Notes - Ch 8 Europe-Learning Objectives...

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1 Ch 8 Europe-Learning Objectives Understand the nationalism that has thrown the region into armed conflict many times Understand the formation of the European Union and evolution of the euro Become familiar with physical, demographic, cultural, political, and economic characteristics of Europe Understand these concepts and models: Feudalism Hierarchical Diffusion Privatization Secularization Balkanization Cold War Command Economy European Union
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2 Introduction • Europe is diverse – Different climates, landforms, agricultural output – 37 different countries – Many different languages and cultures – Long history of warfare, mostly along national lines – Europe is globalizing, was a major colonial power – European Union, a supranational organization – Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia broke up; Germanies reunited – Cradle of the Industrial Revolution
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3 Environmental Geography: Human Transformation of a Diverse Landscape • Four factors explain Europe’s diversity – Complex geology with newest and oldest formations – Latitudinal extent – Land and water interaction/influence on climate – Thousands of years of humans living there caused changes
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4 Environmental Geography: Human Transformation of a Diverse Landscape Environmental Issues, Local and Global, East and West • Agriculture, resource-extraction, industrial manufacturing, urbanization create air and water pollution and acid rain • Western Europe is one of the world’s greenest regions because of pro-environment policies since 1970s • European voters support environment in Europe and globally • Eastern Europe neglected its environment under Soviet- style economics; Soviet-designed nuclear plants may be dangerous • Ongoing economic and political evolution make it difficult to solve Eastern Europe’s environmental problems
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5 • European Lowland (a.k.a. North European Plain) – Reaches from SW France to Poland, includes SE England – Focus of West Europe – Major rivers, high population density, major cities – Agriculture, industries • Alpine Mountain System – “Spine of Europe,” east-west mountain ranges, from Atlantic Ocean to the Black Sea, 20 million years old – Alps run 500 miles from France to Austria, tallest peak over 15K feet – Pyrenees (Spain & France); Appenines (Italy); Carpathians (east edge)
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6 • Central Uplands – Between Alps and Lowland (from France to Czech republic) – Has iron, coal, other resources for manufacturing • Western Highlands – (Portugal to Finland + part of British Isles) – Contains fjords (flooded valleys carved by glaciers) in the north – “Shield landscape” contains the world’s oldest rocks (600 million years)
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7 Europe’s Climates – Climates moderated by North Atlantic Current – Europe has 3 climate types • Marine west coast climate – no winter months average below freezing, but cold rain, snow are common; summers often cloudy with frequent
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course GEOG 51433 taught by Professor Stutz during the Spring '11 term at Mesa CC.

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8_9_11_Lecture_Notes - Ch 8 Europe-Learning Objectives...

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