12_13_14_Lecture_Notes

12_13_14_Lecture_Notes - Chapter 12: South Asia Learning...

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1 Chapter 12: South Asia Learning Objectives Understand the climatological challenges of this region, e.g. monsoons, cyclones, flooding Learn about the challenges and strategies of feeding a large and growing population Become familiar with the physical, demographic, cultural, political, and economic characteristics of South Asia Understand the following concepts and models: -Mughal Empire -Orographic rainfall -Subcontinent -Indian diaspora - Monsoon -Green Revolution -Caste system -Hinduism
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2 Introduction • The Himalayan Mountains are in South Asia • Called the Indian subcontinent • India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives • South Asia is the world’s second most populous region • The population is growing • South Asia was a British colony for several centuries • Since 1947, India and Pakistan have been embroiled in conflict; both countries have nuclear weapons • This region is one of the world’s poorest
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3 Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim – Natural Hazards in Bangladesh • Ganges and Brahmaputra river deltas flood in wet summer monsoons; dense settlement there causes many deaths – Forests and Deforestation • Ganges Valley and coastal plains of India deforested for agriculture • Deforestation’s causes: agricultural, urban, and industrial expansion • Problems: fuel wood shortage leads to use of manure which then cannot be used as fertilizer
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4 Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim (cont.) Environmental Issues in South Asia (cont.) • South Asia’s Monsoon Climates • Monsoon: the distinct seasonal change of wind direction; in South Asia – Summer monsoon brings rain and flooding – Winter monsoon is dry • Orographic rainfall : precipitation from the uplifting and cooling of moist winds; it occurs in the Western Ghats and Himalayas – Rain-shadow effect: the area of low rainfall found on the leeward (or downwind side) of a mountain range • Drier conditions in Pakistan
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5 Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim (cont.) • The Four Subregions of South Asia – Mountains of the North • Collision of Indian Subcontinent with Asian landmass – Himalayas, Hindu Kush – Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands • Lowlands created by three major river systems – Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers – Peninsular India • Deccan Plateau covers most of India • Sri Lanka (1 island) and Maldives (1,200 small islands)
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6 Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma • India has more than 1 billion people – Concern about producing enough food – India’s TFR at 3.2, but preference for males creates problems • Pakistan has 145 million people – Pakistan lacks an effective, coordinated family planning program – Overall TFR is 5.6; RNI is 2.8% – Linked to Muslim culture – Early childhood mortality, and low rate of female contraception • Bangladesh has 133.5 million people
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course GEOG 51433 taught by Professor Stutz during the Spring '11 term at Mesa CC.

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12_13_14_Lecture_Notes - Chapter 12: South Asia Learning...

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