thinking geographically

thinking geographically - Chapter 1 Thinking Geographically...

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Chapter 1 Thinking Geographically
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How Geographers Address Location Maps _______________- science of map-making Early mapmaking (stick charts, petroglyphs) Map scale – relation of a feature’s size on a map to its actual size on Earth _________ scale – large versus small scale _________scale – written, graphic, fractional Projection –transferring the features on a globe to a map. Properties of shape, distance, size and direction are distorted. (e.g. cylindrical, azimuthal, planar and equal area)
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How Geographers Address Location - Land Ordinance of 1785 -A law that divided much of the US into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers. - Townships are 6x6 miles or 36 sections of one sq. mile - North-South lines are principal meridians - Sections are divided into four quarter sections resulting in USGS quadrangle topographic maps - East-West lines are designated base lines - Each township has a number corresponding to its distance north or south of a particular baseline - Most pioneers bought 0.5x 0.5 mile plots
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How Geographers Address Location Contemporary Tools GIS – Geographic Information System A system of computer hardware and software that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data. _______ is stored in discrete layers (e.g. roads, wetlands) Layers can be viewed independently or combined Enables ________ data to be analyzed (i.e. one can calculate whether relationships between objects on a map are significant or coincidental). _____% of geography majors go into GIS More maps in last 5 yrs using GIS than all prior maps Every industry uses GIS CESAR lab at SDSU and Mesa are nodes for GIS
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How Geographers Address Location Contemporary Tools contd. _________________ – acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a remote location Landsat Satellites transmit digital data Sonar, Radar, Thermal Infrared, Microwave, Arial Photographs Primary applications are physical and include mapping of vegetation, weather patterns, deforestation, surface ocean and land temperatures, desertification, urban sprawl, etc. Check out USGS, NOAA and US National Mapping Info
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How Geographers Address Location Contemporary Tools contd. GPS –________________________determines accurately the precise position of something on Earth. 24 satellites orbit Earth and process of triangulation gives latitude, longitude and altitude Commonly used for navigation and aviation Geographers use GPS to code precise locations of objects for numerical data in a computer which allows for statistical analysis of quantitative data
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Place: Unique location of a feature Place names ___________- name given to a place on Earth (e.g. El Cajon, Mesa College). Longest name on p. 16 Site- Describes physical character of a place Site characteristics include ____________, water sources, topography, soil, __________, latitude, and elevation. Essential is selecting locations for settlements
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thinking geographically - Chapter 1 Thinking Geographically...

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