Prelim I - 1 NS 3310- Prelim I Carbohydrates:...

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1 NS 3310- Prelim I Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Alpha-D-glucose: hydroxyl group (-OH) down. If –OH is down, then it is referred to as alpha. Beta-D-galactose: -OH pointed up. Fructose: 5 carbon ring (still 6 carbon sugar): -OH in Beta (up) *Beta= UP *Alpha=DOWN Glucose oxidase (which breaks down glucose) prefers glucose to be in the Beta-D-confirmation. The reason is because when –OH is in the alpha position, its sticks out and glucose oxidase cannot degrade the structure as easily. Disaccharides: * Glucose molecule on top or right Sucrose: Glucose and Fructose (alpha beta 1-2 linkage) Maltose: Glucose and Glucose (alpha, both down. Alpha 1-4 glucosidic linkage) Lactose: Glucose and Galactose (beta 1-4 linkage) Polysaccharides: Amylose: Very stable Not soluble Amylopectin: Less stable. 1-4 alpha linkage Partially soluble Plant starch Glycogen: Very soluble Animal starch *Glycogen has more branches than amylopectin, which has more branches than amylase. Cellulose: NOT SOLUBLE 1-4 beta linkage Lignin: Completely indigestible Amino Acids: Body utilizes L-form of amino acids
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2 Essential amino acids: PVT TIM HALL Phenylalanine, valine, tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, arginine, leucine, lysine Lipids: Glycerol based: Nonesterified fatty acids: -saturated f.a. -unsaturated f.a. -trans Glycerolipids: -mono, di, triacylgycerols Phosopholipids: (not a simple lipid) *-lecithin (has choline as one of the compounds attached to glyercol backbone -amphipathic Non-Glycerol based: Sphingolipids: -sphingosine -ceramide- -sphingomyelin -cerebrosides (neutral) -gangliosides (acidic) Steroids: which can form- ***- Cholesterol (plants do not contain cholesterol). -sterols -bile -sex hormones and corticosteroids Waxes: -Bee’s wax: palmitate and myricyl alcohol Fatty acids: * LMPS (fatty acids. Mono, from 12-118 carbons, even numbered) Linoleic: Omega 6 (double bond after 6 th carbon from methyl end) Linolenic: Omega 3 * anything that has an omega group less than 7 means that it was derived from the diet. It’s precursor must have been consumed in the diet. Trans f.a. have a higher melting point because they resemble saturated f.a. (which have higher melting points than unsaturated f.a.) The more unsaturated, the lower the melting point.
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3 As number of Carbons increases in fatty acid, the solubility decrease. Hence cholesterol in basically not soluble at all in water. If it were omega 6, C18:2 = first double bond after 6 th carbon, and the two means there are two double bonds, with the second one after the third carbon from the first double bond. High Iodine #= Low Melting Point Iodine number shows degree of unsaturation. So high iodine number means lots of double bonds, which means low melting point. Experiments have showed that compared to saturated f.a, unsaturated f.a. can lower blood serum
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course NS 331 taught by Professor Mccormick during the Spring '10 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Prelim I - 1 NS 3310- Prelim I Carbohydrates:...

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