units 3,6,18 - Unit 3: Ways of Knowing About Nutrition...

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Unit 3: Ways of Knowing About Nutrition Association: The findings that one condition is correlated with, or related to another condition, such as a disease or disorder. For example diets low in vegetables are associated with breast cancer. Associations do not prove that one condition (such as a diet low in vegetables) cause an event (such as breast cancer). They indicate that a statistically significant relationship between a condition and an event exists. Cause and Effect: A finding that demonstrated that a condition causes a particular event. For example vitamin C deficiency causes the deficiency disease scurvy. Clinical Trial: A study designed in which one group of randomly assigned subjects (or subjects selected by the “luck of the draw”) receives an active treatment and another group receives an inactive treatment, or “sugar pill,” called the placebo. Experimental Group: Subjects in a study who receive the treatment being tested or have the condition that is being investigated. Control Group: Subjects in a study who do not receive the active treatment or who do not have the condition under investigation. Control periods, or times when subjects are not receiving treatment, are sometimes used instead of a control group. Double Blind: A study in which neither the subjects participating in the research nor the scientists performing the research know which subjects are receiving the treatment and which are getting the placebo. Both subjects and investigators are “blind” to the treatment being administered. Epidemiological Studies: Research that seeks to identify conditions related to particular events within a population. This type of research does not identify cause-and-effect relationships. For example, much of the information known about diet and cancer is based on epidemiological studies that have found that diets low in vegetables and fruits are associated with the development of heart disease. Hypothesis: A statement made prior to initiating a study of the relationship sought to be proved (found true) by the research. Placebo: A “sugar pill,” an imitation treatment given to subjects in research. Epidemiological Study v Clinical Trial: o Epidemiological Studies are often used to identify conditions that are related to specific health events in humans. o Clinical Trials are used to test the effects of a treatment or intervention on a specific biological event. Association vs. Cause-and-effect Relationship: o Cause-and-effect relationships : cause is a strong word in science. It implies that something (such as a supplement) causes a certain result (such as hair loss) o Associations: suggests that something (such as vitamins) could be strongly related to a condition (such as hair loss), but not actually cause it. Review Questions:
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course FDSC 150 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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units 3,6,18 - Unit 3: Ways of Knowing About Nutrition...

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