Final outline - Psych Outline- Final Module 8: Prenatal...

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Psych Outline- Final Module 8: Prenatal Development and the Newborn- Zygote- the fertilized egg, it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and development into an embryo Embryo- the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month Fetus- the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception Teratogens- agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm Fetal alcohol syndrome- physical and cognitive abnormalities in children cause by a pregnant women’s heave drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions. Rooting reflex- a baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple. Habituation- decreases responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner Module 9: Infancy and Childhood: Maturation- biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience (maturation sets the basic course of development, experience adjusts it) The average age of earliest conscious memory is 3.5 years old Schema- a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. (ex. Cow) Assimilation- interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas (sees a moose, and calls it a cow. Learns the difference between cow and moose) Accommodation- adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information (a mom moose and a baby moose) Cognition- all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Piaget’s stages of cognitive development- Sensorimotor- from birth to 2 years, during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities (looking, touching, mouthing, and grasping) 1
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Preoperational- 2-6 or 7 years old, during which a child learns th use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic (pretend play) Concrete operational- 7-11, thinking logically about concrete events, grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Formal operational- 12 – adulthood, abstract reasoning Object permanence- the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Conservation- the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects (part of the Piaget’s preoperational stage) Egocentrism- the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view (holds up a picture facing the wrong way when showing it to someone) Theory of mind- people’s ideas about their own and other’ mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict Stanger anxiety- the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Larryhawk during the Fall '11 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Final outline - Psych Outline- Final Module 8: Prenatal...

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