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Prelim II study notes

Prelim II study notes - Key Terms for Prelim II Module 6...

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Key Terms for Prelim II Module 6- Behavior Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology Genome- the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in the organism’s chromosome Identical twins- develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two creating two genetically identical twins -May have the same blood source or two different blood sources Fraternal twins- develop from separate eggs. Share same fetal environment -genes are DNA segments that, when expressed (turned on), form templates for the production of proteins. By directing the manufacture of proteins, the genes determine our individual biological development - Adopted children share many values and attitudes with their adoptive parents, but adopted children’s personalities tend to display the genetic legacy of their biological parents. Heritability- the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied -we can never say what percentage of an individual’s personality or intelligence in inheritied. It makes no sense to say that your personality is due x percent to you heredity and y percent is due to your environment - as environments become more similar, heredity as a source of differences necessarily becomes more important Interaction- in psychology, occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity). Molecular genetics- the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes Evolutionary psychology- the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection Module 7- Environmental Influences on Behavior Personal space- the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies Individualism- giving priorities to one’s own goals over group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications. “me” 1
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Collectivism- giving priority to the goals of one’s group )often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly. “we” Aggression- physical behavior intended to hurt someone Gender identity- one’s sense of being male or female Gender- typing- the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role Social learning theory- the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished Gender schema theory- the theory that children learn form their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly Module 19 - Hypnosis: Hypnosis- a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggest to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur Posthypnotic suggestion- a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after
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