final outline

final outline - NS 115 Post Prelim 2 I Protein and the big...

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NS 115- Post Prelim 2 I. Protein and the big C (cancer) 1. Protein is correlated w/ cancer 2. risk of cancer increases w/ weight 3. lung cancer is #1 type of cancer- environmental 4. Causes of preventable cancer a. Smoking b. High intake dietary fat 5. Calories and cancer a. ½ diet, lifespan doubled in rats b. lowering calorie intake decreases tumor formation c. obesity is a risk factor for cancer d. decrease calorie intake decreases glucose level, which decreases insulin level e. high calorie intake decreases DHEA (made by adrenal glands)- (DHEA may elongate life) 6. We can all get cancer at any time a. if pre-carcinogen is oxidized it becomes a carcinogen b. if carcinogen enters normal cell nucleus the cell becomes cancerous 7. Cancer can be caused by viral or bacterial infections such as hepatitis B and HPV 8. Cancer 1) Initiation phase- pre-carcinogen becomes oxidized and cancerous due to DNA mutation Oncogene- gene able to transform normal cells into cancer cells Nutrition will have the greatest effect as this stage 2) Latent phase- cell is cancerous, but not multiplying 3) Promotion phase- lump/tumor forms 4) An event/Progression- cancer cells get bigger and spread out 5) Metastasis phase- cancer cells spread to other tissues 9. As cancer worsens the effect of proper nutrition no longer plays an important role 10. Cancer treatments a. Radiation therapy- exposes cancer cells to high level of x-rays to kill them b. Chemotherapy- uses anti-cancer drugs to halt cycle of cell division. (These drugs are non-specific and kill normal cells as well) 11. Cancer causes loss of appetite and wasting of lean (muscle) tissue (aka cachexia) 12. Cancer prevention a. low fat diet b. sufficient intake of dietary fiber 13. Vitamin A and E supplements increase risk for cancer and heart disease 14. Use meat only as a condiment b/c: a. Reduce fat intake b. Reduce stress on kidneys c. We only need 6% of our calories from protein d. Save rainforest, b/c land is cleared to raise the animals e. Save water, b/c animals require a lot of water f. Save energy 1
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II. Preventing cancer (Vitamins A and C) 1. There is hope about cancer a. don’t smoke b. reduce caloric intake c. increase fruit and vegetable intake i. vegetarian diet is correlated w/ decreased deaths from cancer ii. antioxidants in fruits and vegetables decrease caner iii. reduce total caloric intake- decreases risk of colon, prostate, and breast cancers iv. Vitamin A, C, E supplements won’t help 2. Vitamin A (retinal)- antioxidant a. sources: i. animals- retinal and retinylesters (preformed) ii. plants- provitamin A (can be converted into vitamin A) iii. both easily absorbed by small intestine → transported to liver, and stored b. Important roles of vitamin A i. retinal- dark adaptation in eyes retinal + opsin = rhodopsin, which allows us to see ii. In development- helps with transfer of DNA to mRNA iii. Growth Cell differentiation and reproduction Bone growth Epithelial cell growth- separates you from outside world
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course NS 115 taught by Professor Levitsky during the Fall '07 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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final outline - NS 115 Post Prelim 2 I Protein and the big...

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