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Unformatted text preview: NS 115 Prelim 1 I. How we know what we know about nutrition and health 1. Nutritional wisdom a. Clara Davis- infant feeding studies b. Leanna Birch- children are born with regulation and as we age we lose the ability 2. Personal testimony 3. ancient wisdom 4. ads 5. written by a scientist- scientific method a. observation b. must be public c. peer reviewed d. replication 6. scientific study cant prove hypothesis, be can disprove null hypothesis 7. epidemiological study- correlations in population (survey people) 8. epidemiological study w/ controls 9. association (correlation) causation 10. cant prove relationship w/ correlation, but can disprove one 11. Experimental/intervention study a. open clinical trial- participants are exposed to a treatment or intervention b. randomized design- minimize hailo effect (your bias effects outcome) c. placebo controlled d. hawthorne effect- results are influenced by alteration of something not related to actual study e. confounding variable- factor other than the one of interest that might influence outcome of the experiment f. best = placebo controlled, double blind, randomized, cross-over design study 12. sample size is never too small when effects are statistically significant II. Modulation of a meal- Automatic Nervous System 1. parasympathetic- controls signal organ a. assimilation (builds up) of energy b. acetylcholine c. stimulates enzymes that promote fat synthesis and storage 2. sympathetic- whole body gets excited a. uses energy- fight or flight response b. networked enervation c. norepinephrine d. stimulates enzymes that release fat 3. stomach is normally constricted 1 III. Entering the holy sanctuary- the mouth 1. prions- change proteins (bad) 2. cephalic phase- 1 st part of digestion (see, smell food, getting ready to eat), salivary glands stimulated 3. mastication/gastric phase- 2 nd part of digestion (chewing, breakdown of food for enzyme action), stimulated by arrival of food into stomach, characterized by increased GI mobility and release of GI secretions 4. intestinal phase- 3 rd part of digestion- chime enters small intestine, characterized by decreased GI mobility and decreased secretion of gastric juice 5. Saliva contains: a. lipase- breaks triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids b. amylase- breaks starch into simple sugars 6. nursing bottle syndrome- baby falls asleep w/ bottle in mouth. B/c carbs, salivation stops and teeth rot 7. infants cant taste salt 8. sour tasting food stimulate increased saliva production 9. sweetness is addictive and can be used to block pain 10. artificial sweeteners: a. saccharin- causes cancer b. aspartame- converts into methanol in body (bad) c. sorbitol- in sugarless gum, antibacterial 11. peristaltic contraction (swallowing)- restriction behind and relaxation in front to move food along GI tract 12. parts of GI tract- oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines 13. Organs that release digestive secretions: salivary glands, stomach, pancreas. Gallbladder, 13....
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- Fall '07