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prelim II outline

prelim II outline - I Lecture 13 Role of B vitamins(water...

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I. Lecture 13: Role of B vitamins (water soluble) 1. ATP production is determined by the need for energy. Eating more glucose will not make you produce more ATP 2. To produce more energy, you must use more energy 3. Cofactors- inorganic substances (ie: minerals) a. Must be attached to active site for enzyme to function 4. Dehydrogenase- enzyme necessary for coupled reactions 5. Coenzyme- organic substances (ie: vitamins) a. Not part of enzyme structure b. Help enzyme by accepting/donating H+ and e- c. Examples: NAD+, FAD, NADP+ 6. Kreb Cycle needs B vitamins as coenzymes 7. Vitamin B3- niacin, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid a. NAD+ b. Don’t lose it if not use it (recycled) c. Causes: i. Dilation of blood vessels and tingling sensation, face turns red d. Mild deficiency causes: i. Tiredness, b/c no ATP production (b/c Kreb Cycle won’t function) ii. Weakness iii. Inability to concentrate iv. Poor memory e. Severe deficiency causes Pellagra and the 3Ds: i. Dermatisis (scaly skin) ii. Disrrhea iii. dementia f. Megadoses (pharalogical action) i. Lowers blood triglycerides ii. Lowers VLDL iii. Raises HDL iv. Helps Type I diabetes v. Liver damage vi. Visual problems vii. Smaller doses also lower cholesterol g. Sources: i. Meat ii.Mushrooms iii. Asparagus iv. Legumes v. Fish vi. Lime water (corn + calcium hydroxide) increases availability of niacin 8. Vitamin B12- Riboflavin a. FAD+, FMN b. Humans require very little c. Deficiency is rare b/c it is in everything d. Epidemiological study showed that people who ingest greater percent of food containing flavinoids display less cancer than those who consume less 9. Vitamin B1- Thiamine a. Necessary for conversion of pyruvate into Acetyl CoA for Citric Acid Cycle b. Deficiency causes: i. High lactic acid- since pyruvate is not converted into Acetyl CoA, it is used in fermentation ii. Tiredness, fatigues, muscle aches iii. Causes dramatic effects b/c deficiency occurs and disappears quickly c. Severe deficiency causes Beriberi- so tired you can’t do anything: “I can’t, I can’t” i. Wet Beriberi 1) Rapid heart rate 2) Increased heart size 3) Edema- puffy under skin 1
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ii. Dry Beriberi 1) Eye movement affected 2) Neural tissue sensitive 3) Neuropathy 4) Brain affected 5) Stance/gait affected 6) Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome: makes you confused iii. Major causes of Beriberi 1) Rice polishing- remove brown part of rice which contains thymine 2) Alcoholism 3) Raw fish- contains enzyme that breaks down thymine d. Sources i. Seeds ii. Whole grains iii. Peas iv. Pork and beef 10. Vitamin B5- Panthothenic Acid (nitrogen containing) a. Coenzyme A- critical for metabolism of pyruvate into Acetyl CoA for Kreb Cycle b. Deficiencies are rare b/c it is found everywhere (plants and animals) i. Burning feet syndrome
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