Determinism is the belief that everything is selected or caused by the past. The metaphor of the clock, reflexes on what motions are set by man and god without any interference. Determinism predicts the changes of our history because we understand the function of time. Reductionism is the doctrine that explains phenomena on one level which are complex and which are simple. Examples of reductionism is taking apart a certain machine and see how exactly it works. Simply, reductionism is reducing a certain obstacle and understanding how to reduce them to their basic components. Johannes Muller’s discovered a theory of the specific energies of the nerves of the body. He mentioned that the stimulation of particular nerves always leads to characteristic sensation, because each sensory nerve has its own energy. Hermann von Helmholtz believed that deterministic approach is compared to the human body. Helmholtz believed that our organs functions like a machine. He also compared the transmission of the nerve impulse to the operation of the telegraph.
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2011 for the course ART, PSYCH 101, 1021, taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '11 term at St.Francis College.