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Chapter 9 – Mental Retardation

Chapter 9 – Mental Retardation - Chapter 9...

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Chapter 9 – Mental Retardation Intelligence and Mental Retardation Intellectual disability: significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that begin before age 18 History Prior to mid-19th century, individuals with mental retardation were ignored or feared Discovery of feral children and expansion of humanitarian efforts helped reduce misunderstanding/mistreatment In 1848, Samuel G. Howe opened the Massachusetts School for Idiotic and Feeble-Minded Youth By 1940s parents began to work for humane care of their children 1950: National Association for Retarded Children 1962: President John F. Kennedy formed the President’s Panel on Mental Retardation calling for national program to combat mental retardation The Eugenics Scare Eugenics : the science (?) dealing with all influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race o Evolutionary degeneracy theory pervasive in 19th century viewed intellectual/social problems of mentally retarded as regression to earlier period in human evolution (“missing link”) J. Langdon H. Down: viewed “strange anomalies” as throwbacks to Mongol race The eugenics movement, first defined by Sir Francis Galton in 1883, led to the view that individuals with MR (moral imbeciles, or morons) were threats to society G. Stanley Hall: children 8-12 are “mature savages” who need strong social forces to become civilized Defining and Measuring Children’s Intelligence •Alfred Binet & T. Simon: commissioned by French government to develop the first intelligence tests to measure judgment and reasoning of school children to be used to identify school children who might need special help in school •MR is defined on the basis of IQ & one’s level of adaptive functioning o Adaptive functioning: how effectively individuals cope with ordinary life demands and how capable they are of living independently and abiding by community standards The Controversial IQ •IQ is relatively stable over time •Mental ability is always modified by experience early stimulation programs help children build on their existing strengths Are We Really Getting Smarter?
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•The Flynn Effect refers to the phenomenon that IQ scores have risen about 3 points per decade since IQ testing began Are IQ Tests Biased or Unfair? •African Americans score about 1 SD below whites •Likely due to economic and social inequality Features of Intellectual Retardation Clinical Description o Considerable range of abilities and interpersonal qualities o DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic criteria (AXIS II Dx) Significantly below average IQ (<70) concurrent deficits or impairments in adaptive functioning below-average intellectual and adaptive abilities must be evident prior to age 18 o Criteria are arbitrary; a label of MR has serious ramifications, including placement in school learning environment Degrees of Impairment Mild MR (IQ of 55 - 70): 85% of persons with MR Moderate MR (IQ of 40 - 54): 10% Severe MR (IQ of 25 - 39): about 3-4%
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Chapter 9 &acirc;€“ Mental Retardation - Chapter 9...

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