math - Elias Tsihlis Educational Psychology Spring 2011 Dr....

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Elias Tsihlis Educational Psychology Spring 2011 Dr. Zheng Zhou PSY 2050 In response to unacceptable levels of mathematics achievement in the United States many groups with an interest in the teaching of mathematics have called for reform. The calls for reform are based on recent advances in cognitive theory that call for a more constructivist view of learning. Traditionally, mathematics instruction in the primary grades has consisted of teaching computational skills, drills, and simple word problems. Concepts now included in mathematics curricula are being changed to stress problem-solving skills, but the resources and teaching methods available to primary grade teachers are not keeping current with the new standards. In 1989, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics began emphasizing the teaching of mathematical concepts and problem solving at all grade levels. In the years following, the NCTM has strengthened their stance on the inclusion of problem solving within mathematics curricula. The California Mathematics Framework also includes problem-solving instruction beginning in kindergarten. The primary focus of mathematics instruction is shifting from simple computational skills to problem-solving applications in all grade levels. The purpose of teaching problem solving in the primary grades is to enable the student to understand the relationships between an event and the mathematical model of that event. Mathematics is studied in school so that we can resolve real-life problems. The problems teachers design for their students should follow these parameters: (a) the problem should be mathematically significant, (b) the problem should occur in real-life, include real objects, or be an obvious simulation of a real occurrence, (c) the situation should capture the interest of the child, (d) the students should be able to solve the problem and know when he has the solution. Traditional textbook instruction is teacher centered. The teacher and the textbook are the authority. The teacher and the textbook determine what the problems are and how they are to be solved. The standard algorithms are taught and used. This differs from a class which is using a standards based. The standards based curriculum places more responsibility on the student to learn. The teacher is a coach, or facilitator to the student. The shift from computation skills to applying mathematical concepts to problem-
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2011 for the course ART, PSYCH 101, 1021, taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '11 term at St.Francis College.

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math - Elias Tsihlis Educational Psychology Spring 2011 Dr....

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