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Lecture14-Notes - ME 382 Lecture 14 INTRODUCTION TO...

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ME 382 Lecture 14 1 I NTRODUCTION TO K INETICS (I) Reminder ; Atoms & molecules (or other objects) try to minimize Gibbs free energy G = H enthalpy T absolute temperature S entropy where, Enthalpy is a generalized form of energy H = U + pV where U includes bond energy, strain energy, atomic concentration, Entropy is a measure of disorder At equilibrium: no force on atoms dG / dx = 0 Away from equilibrium configuration, a force acts to restore equilibrium: F = G x An external applied force can re-establish equilibrium Otherwise, force results in motion of atoms & molecules to equilibrium configuration Steady-state flow rate (or velocity) mobility x force where mobility is a measure of inverse resistance to motion Analogies: Viscous flow in pipe of radius R : v = R 2 8 η dP dx Λি Νয় Ξ৯ Πਏ Electricity flowing in a resistor: I = A ρ dV dx Λি Νয় Ξ৯ Πਏ ( i.e, I = V / R ) Stokes’ law (drag force D on sphere of radius a ): v = D /6 πη a
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ME 382 Lecture 14 2
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