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biology notes

biology notes - The lowest level(K the next level(L His...

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January 22 Scientific Method What is Science? What do scientists do? make observations attempt to discern patterns assume that the future is like the past Scientific Method: What are the basic steps of the method? What is the outcome of this process? Terminology Hypothesis Theory Law What is Biology? What is Life? What are the characteristics of Life?
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January 24 BASIC CHEMISTRY: We are going to begin by using a reductionist approach. Scale of Nature: What are the sizes of biologically important structures Log Scale Solubility (DEMO) "Like dissolves Like" ATOMS : Smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means. Smallest unit of an element, that retains all of the elements properties. An atom is composed of many smaller particles. particle mass electric charge proton neutron electron Atomic Structure : Bohr Model This model has electrons moving in orbitals or shells around the nucleus. The electrons always try to be in the lowest orbital or energy shell (that is closest to the nucleus).
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Unformatted text preview: The lowest level (K), the next level (L) His next observation was that an atom was most stable (that is unreactive) when the outer most shell of electrons was full. Atoms will try to gain or lose electrons in order to fill their outer shell or valence shell. The number of electrons to be gained or lost is called the valence . STRONG BONDS::: Bonds which are the result of very strong electrical attraction, where electrons are lost or gained are called IONIC BONDS . Bonds which are the result of electrical attractions which are not so strong, where the electrons are shared are COVALENT BONDS . POLAR COVALENT BONDS Can these bonds can be considered to grade from one to another? What determines the number and type of bond? Electronegativity Weak Bonds: A bond which is the result of very weak electrical attractions between atoms bearing partial electrical charges are HYDROGEN BONDS . One atom involved must be Hydrogen...
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