Health Ethics Midterm Exam Study Guide

Health Ethics Midterm Exam Study Guide - Health Ethics...

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Health Ethics Midterm Exam Study Guide Recently Dominant Theories: Teleological (Consequentialist) Theory Def: any ethical theory that claims the rightness and wrongness of human action is exclusively a function of the goodness and badness of the consequences resulting directly from that action. Utilitarianism Act Utilitarianism : “a person ought to act so as to produce the greatest balance of good over evil, everyone considered”. Understood as a form of “situation ethics” because the act utilitarian has no sympathy for the notion that certain kinds of actions are intrinsically wrong; thus, the morality of the action is a function of the situation confronting the agent. Makes a direct appeal to Utility Greatest Happiness Principle =only rule-says you should always act in a way that the result is more happiness than unhappiness;everyone considered. – Mill (happiness:intrinsic value; unhappiness:intrinsic disvalue) Hedonic Calculus = Bentham’s idea of “pain or pleasure” (pleasure:intrinsic value; pain:intrinsic disvalue) Process of Utilitarian Decision Making: 1. Identify alternative course actions 2. Foresee consequences of each action 3. Evaluate the consequences by weighing the good and bad-place value Rule Utilitarianism : “a person ought to act in accordance with the rule that if generally followed, would produce the greatest balance of good over evil; everyone considered”. Follows a set of rules to maximize happiness (commonsense rules of morality: “do not kill, steal, lie, break promises”)
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The rules can be broken if it maximizes happiness (ex: Killing Bin Laden) Involves an indirect appeal for the principle of utility which is determined by Utility itself. Ethical Egoism: “a person ought to act so as to promote his or her own self interest” An action is morally right if when compared with possible alternatives, its consequences are such as to generate the greatest balance of good over evil for the agent. Deontological (Non-Consequentialist) Theory Def: The rightness and wrongness of human action is not exclusively a function of the goodness and badness of an action- Places limits on the importance of consequentialist considerations. Kantian Ethics Kant says morality must not be rooted in the circumstances of the world or in the particular circumstances of my own life, but reason alone. Focus is on RATIONALITY
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2011 for the course PHIL 2400 taught by Professor Shaefer during the Spring '11 term at Xavier LA.

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Health Ethics Midterm Exam Study Guide - Health Ethics...

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