Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 External forces: the need for...

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Chapter 13 External forces: the need for change comes from various forces, such as the marketplace, governmental laws and regulations, technology, labor markets, and economic changes Internal forces: the need for change originate from the internal operations of the organization or from the impact of the external environment Calm Waters Metaphor: change comes as an occasional disruption in the normal flow of events Change can be planned and requires unfreezing the status quo, changing to a new state, and refreezing to make the change permanent The status quo is considered an equilibrium state and to move out this equilibrium, unfreezing is necessary, which can be thought of as preparing for the needed change Unfreezing can be done by increasing the driving forces, decreasing the restraining forces, or combining the two Driving forces are forces pushing for change while restraining forces are forces that resist change. Refreezing: needed so change can be sustained over time; without it, there’s a strong chance that the change will be short lived as employees revert back to the old equilibrium state The objective is to stabilize the new situation by reinforcing the new behaviors White-Water Rapids Metaphor: change is an expected and natural state, and managing change is a continuous process Disruptions in the status quo are not occasional and temporary, and they are not followed by a return to calm waters Initiating Change: involves indentifying what types of changes might be needed and putting the change process in motion Three Categories of Change: structure, technology and, people Structure: any change in structural variables such as reporting relationships, coordination mechanisms, employee empowerment, or job redesign Technology: change that encompasses modifications in the way work is performed or the methods and equipment that are used People: change in attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behavior of
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2011 for the course MAN 3025 taught by Professor Clevenger during the Fall '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 External forces: the need for...

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