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Chapter 59

Chapter 59 - Chapter 59 Conservation Biology 59.1 What is...

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Chapter 59: Conservation Biology 59.1 – What is conservation biology? o Conservational biology is an applied science with the goal of protecting and managing the biodiversity of the earth o Biodiversity in this context can refer to Genetic variation Species richness Ecosystem diversity o Background extinction rate=10% per million years o Mass extinction involve the loss of many species in many habitats o Five major mass extinction events in earth’s history have been caused by global changes o Human activities can have significant impacts on biodiversity o When humans first arrived in north America 120,00 years ago, most of the mega fauna went extinct within a few thousand years o Biodiversity is valuable for Ecosystem services Direct human benefits, such as food and medicines Aesthetic benefits Opportunities to study ecological relationships Ethical considerations of nature o Plants and animals are sources of many medicines o Wild organisms provide genetic diversity we can utilize o Ecosystems provide oxygen sequester carbon fix nitrogen
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filter water prevent floods control erosion o it is often difficult to assess changes in biodiversity, because our knowledge of it is so incomplete o predictive statistical models, using the theory of island biogeography, can be applied to infer biodiversity loss o habitat loss can be directly measured o reductions in population or habitat size can jeopardize species persistence o humans have been causing immense amounts of extinctions habitat loss or danger introduced species overexploitation climate change o habitat destruction is the most important threat to biodiversity worldwide o increasing as a result of human population growth o soviet era-irrigation projects diverted millions of cubic meters of water from the rivers that fed the aral sea. The resulting decrease in water led to lower water levels and increased salinity. A once thriving fishing industry went bust, as evidenced by
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