Unit 3 Stem Cells - Unit 3 STEM CELLS 101808 Fall 2008 What are •Stem cells •Embryonic stem cells 1 •Adult stem cells Does stem cell therapy

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Unformatted text preview: Unit 3 STEM CELLS 101808 Fall 2008 What are: •Stem cells? •Embryonic stem cells? 1 •Adult stem cells? Does stem cell therapy work? Does stem cell therapy relate to human cloning? UNIT 3 Stem cells: Precursors of better things to come! Stem cells are precursor cells that can change cell identity and develop into a nerve cell or a heart cell. Stem cells have great potential for development f valuable therapeutic Stem Cells 2 of valuable therapeutic treatments. Will this potential for good ever be realized? Human embryonic stem cells This human embryonic stem cell (gold) is growing on a layer of fibroblast cells. Embryonic stem cells grow in very early 3 embryos and have the potential to generate into any type of human cell. The fibroblast cells provide special factors to help maintain the stem cells in an undifferentiated state. Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph by Annie Cavanagh and Dave McCarthy. Stem cells were grown by Jessica Cooke in Stephen Minger's labs at King's College London. What does the future hold? The promise of stem cell research: Hope or Hype? The underlying promise of stem cell research— using the amazing potential of ESCs to develop new and powerful cell replacement treatments, for testing drugs and toxins, to better understand the process of cell differentiation. Stem cells and the human genome • Every stem cell contains a complete copy of the human genome master plan. • Every cell in the body, including stem cells, contain identical copies of the genome DNA sequences. • All the cells in your body contain identical genes and DNA sequences. 5 chromosomes cells nucleus When the stem cell gets a specific signal it executes a genetic program and begins to specialize. Muscle cells Red blood cells Nerve cells How do the identical genes in your cells manage to generate so many Human body contains identical DNA genome in each cell 6 http://gened.emc.maricopa.edu/bio/bio181/BIOBK/BioBookAnimalTS.html Cells lining a tubule Fat cells Cells lining the small intestine Cell types in the stomach different cell types in your body? Muscle cells Red blood cells Nerve cells Different cell types make different tissues by expressing different subsets of genes in the human Fundamental concept about tissue-specific gene expression 7 http://gened.emc.maricopa.edu/bio/bio181/BIOBK/BioBookAnimalTS.html Cells lining a tubule Fat cells Cells lining the small intestine Cell types in the stomach subsets of genes in the human genome. Cells develop specialized functions (differentiate) and form a new type of cell (Blood stem cells form red and white blood cells, etc) Human body generates different cell types by differentiation Cell Division Differentiation is one way that cells can respond to signals from inside (gene expression) and outside (environment, nutrients, hormones) the cell: 8 Differentiation requires the expression of tissue- specific genes....
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course BIOCHEM 100 taught by Professor Dr.mollyfitzgerald during the Fall '09 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Unit 3 Stem Cells - Unit 3 STEM CELLS 101808 Fall 2008 What are •Stem cells •Embryonic stem cells 1 •Adult stem cells Does stem cell therapy

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