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PSYC1101_Motivation_I - Motivation I Motivation-The moving...

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Motivation 7/2/2010 I. Motivation -The moving force that energizes goal-directed behavior a. Motives i. Needs, wants, or desires leading to goal-directed behavior b. Need -State of biological or social deficiency i. Biological 1. Essential for survival 2. Shared by all people ii. Social 1. Vary from person to person 2. Examples: need for achievement, affiliation, autonomy, orderliness iii. Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy *Must start at bottom and work way up the pyramid 1. Physiological 2. Safety 3. Belonging and love 4. Esteem 5. Self-actualization a. A state that is achieved when one’s personal dreams and aspirations have been attained b. Very few people actually achieve this state
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Problems with Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy: -Generally not supported empirically -Ranking of needs may be inaccurate iv. McClelland’s Learned Needs -Proposed that specific needs are acquired over time -Most learned needs can be classified into one of three categories: 1. Need for achievement ( nAch ) a. Desire for accomplishment, skill mastery, and control 2. Need for affiliation a. Desire to feel a sense of belonging and involvement with a social group b. Anxiety and affiliation i. Schachter’s Study on Anxiety and Affiliation 3. Need for power a. Desire to be in charge and have influence v. Linking needs to behavior -Needs create arousal -Physiological activation or increased autonomic response 1. Drives a. Psychological states that encourage behaviors that satisfy needs 2. Arousal and performance -Following this model, higher levels of arousal should lead
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