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PSYC2240_Final_Study_Guide_Essays copy

PSYC2240_Final_Study_Guide_Essays copy - ( Chapter 10 1...

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Final Exam Study Guide – Essays (Short Answer possibilities) Chapter 10 1. Most of the time there are no obvious reinforcers for our behavior. We study for an exam, but no one is there to reinforce our studying minute-by-minute. We work on long-term projects that may not be completed for months or years, in the absence of any obvious reinforcement. How does Skinner explain this? Skinner would say that these complex behaviors are learned by shaping through successive approximations. The step by step process is a part of operant conditioning, towards a final target response that is increasingly approximated. 2. Explain why Skinner argued against the idea that people have free will. All the decisions we make are based off of environmental factors. If the environment is the cause of our actions, then we ourselves are not the cause of our behavior. Thus, if we are not in charge of our behavior, we have no free will. 3. Explain how behaviorism principles, which seem at first to be relevant only to the performance of simple responses, can in principle be used to explain complex patterns of behavior. -Shaping, successive
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approximation Chapter 11 4. Kelly explained that theories have a range of convenience and a focus of convenience. What do you feel is the particular range of convenience and focus of convenience of Kelly's own theory of personality? His range is quite comprehensive, but doesn't get specific in growth & development and emotions so it is not as good with focus because people are not all the same so therefore predictions are hard.
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PSYC2240_Final_Study_Guide_Essays copy - ( Chapter 10 1...

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