Psych2240_Review session

Psych2240_Review session - Psych2240 Sdata:Selfreports...

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Psych 2240 17:45 S data: Self reports Assumes that the most knowledgeable person about your personality is you Simple and understandable as possible Advantages: Information Rich Assess thoughts, feelings, and intentions What we say about ourselves has casual force Valid by self definition o Self esteem o Simple and Easy Disadvantages: People often can’t tell you things People often won’t tell you things Faking Too easy and simple to gather I data: Informant-reports These are essentially judgments Examples of I data: o Letters of recommendation o Work evaluations
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o 360 feedback o Simple “other reports” Advantages: Information Rich Judgments are based on real world observations Common Sense Valid by self definition (Likeability) What others say about is has casual force Inter-rater Reliability L Data: Life Outcomes Hard Data Often used as criteria (expected outcomes) This type of data represents traces of a person that we can see in the real  world Examples o Income o Arrest records o State of ones personal or work environment o Gossip Life Outcomes Advantages o Objective and verifiable
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o Of Intrinsic importance o Psychological relevance o The numbers have specific meaning Disadvantages: o Multi determination o Lack of psychological relevance B Data Behavioral indicators Watching people do stuff Laboratory B data Natural B data Testing B data For personality tests B data is elicited indirectly Example B Data: o Diaries o Experience sampling o Experimental observation o Walking speed, priming, and self consciousness o Rorschach o TAT o CT scans
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o Heart Rate o GSR o Reaction Time o Conditional Reasoning Advantages o Useful in a wide range of contexts o Appearance of objectivity o Low base rate events Disadvantages o Uncertain Interpretation – delay of gratification 9/2/10  Reliability The essence of reliability is the consistency of a measures This is assessed for a measure in a number of different ways Test- restest reliability o Correlation of scores across time Internal consistency- are all questions measuring the same thing? Highly acceptable reliability is around 0.9 however what is acceptable  depends on many factors Detriments to reliability o Lack of measurement precision o People
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Participants Experimenters o Experimental Fluctuations o Boons to reliability Careful Research procedures Standardized protocols Don’t measure error and trivialities Aggregation, aggregation, aggregation Yardsticks and distance (standard, average value) Error cancellation Spearman-Brown prophecy formula o
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