BIO1130_lct02_10STVerX3

BIO1130_lct02_10STVerX3 - Biology, biologists and...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology, biologists and Bioscience Biology, Biologists, and Bioscience BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 1 9:56 AM In this lecture: History of biology, a natural science, compared to that of the physical sciences. Misconceptions about “facts” of biology How biology is done – scientific method in natural sciences. BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Defining biology 2 9:56 AM (Treviranus 1802) The subject matter of our investigations will be the various forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws controlling their existence, and the causes by which this is effected. The science, which occupies itself with these subjects, we shall designate by the name biology, or science of life. BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 3 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 1 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Important stages in the history of Biology 400 BCE – 450: Greek and Roman ages 450 – 16th century: Medieval ages 16th-18th century: Renaissance and the scientific revolution 19th century 20th century 21st century BIO1130 Organismal Biology 4 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Important stages in the history of Biology 400 BCE – 450: Greek and Roman ages Hippocrates __________ Theophrastus (460-370 BCE) (460(460-370 (384-322 BCE) (384(384-322 (371-287 BCE) (371(371-287 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 5 9:56 AM Important stages in the history of Biology 400 BCE – _____: Greek and Roman ages Scala naturae the great chain of being _____________ BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 6 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 2 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Important stages in the history of Biology 450-16th century: Medieval ages 450-16 450Europe – 400-700 Early middle ages (Dark Ages) – 1000-1300 High middle Ages – 1300-1500 Late middle ages Black plague BIO1130 Organismal Biology (1347-1351) (1347(1347-1351) 7 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Important stages in the history of Biology 450-16th century: Medieval ages 450-16 450Byzantium – Al-Jahiz (781-869) – Al-Dinawari (826-896) – Avicenna (980-1037 – Al-Baitar (d. 1248) – Abu al-Abbas al Nabati (13th century) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Avicenna 8 9:56 AM Special creation Pattern – Species don’t change – Each species created on Oct 23, 4004 BCE – Species are not old Process – A designer of some sort BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 3 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Important stages in the history of Biology 16th-18th century: The scientific revolution and the -18 start of modern sciences Copernicus (1473-1543) earth not the center of the universe. Kepler (1571-1630) – planetary motion Newton (1643-1727) – laws of motion, gravity and thermal conduction Galileo (1561-1626) – _____________________________ Boyle (1627-1691) – behaviour of gases Pascal (1623-1662) – origins of calculus Descartes (1596-1650) – ____________ Van Leeuwenhoek (1673) – first microscope, Linnaeus (1735) – Systema naturae. BIO1130 Organismal Biology 10 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Important stages in the history of Biology 16th-18th century: The scientific revolution 16th-18th 16th- Van Leeuwenhoek Leeuwenhoek Harvey (1632-1723) (1632(1632-1723) (1578-1657) (1578(1578-1657) BIO1130 Organismal Biology 11 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM th The “scientific revolution” 16th – 18th century “scientific revolution” th Linnaeus – Systema naturae, 1735 naturae, Taxanomic hierarchy ________ and binomial nomenclature BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 12 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 4 Biology, biologists and Bioscience The “scientific revolution” 16th – 18th century “scientific revolution” Linnaeus – Taxonomic hierarchy Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Family: Castoridae Genus: Castor Species: canadensis Figure 19.8 Apis pubescens, thorace subgriseo, abdominae pubescens, subgriseo, fusco, pedibus utrinque margine ciliatis fusco, BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 14 9:56 AM The fuzzy bee with the greyish thorax, hairless hind legs that are bordered with hairs on both sides BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 15 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 5 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Binomial nomenclature Binomial nomenclature Apis mellifera (Honey bee) BIO1130 Organismal Biology 16 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM The “scientific revolution” 16th – 18th century “scientific revolution” Linnaeus – Taxonomic hierarchy Kingdoms – Animalia – Plantae – Fungi – Protista – Monera Kingdom Monera (includes all prokaryotes) Kingdom Protista (includes several groups of unicellular eukaryotes) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 1-7a,b 1- 18 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 6 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Fungii Kingdom Animalia Figure 1-7c 1- BIO1130 Organismal Biology 19 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM ria te ac Cy an ob ac ter ia bacte ria Thermotogales BIO1130 Organismal Biology Animals lfur bacter _________ Green no nsu b le rp Pu Flavo Gram + ia ___________ s ba oe m ta m E molds Slime Domains of life Eukarya i ng FuPlants Cil iate s Flagell ates Tric hom ona ds M ic ro sp or id Di p lo mo na ds ia Figure19.16 20 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon Georges-Louis Georges(1707-1788) (1707-1788) (1707- Common ancestor Biogeography BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 21 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 7 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Erasmus Darwin 1731-1802 1731-1802 1731- Translated Linnaeus into English The temple of nature BY firm immutable immortal laws Impress'd on Nature by the GREAT FIRST CAUSE, Say, MUSE! how rose from elemental strife Organic forms, and kindled into life BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 22 9:56 AM Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) (1769-1832) (1769- Catastrophic theory Extinction BIO1130 Organismal Biology BIO1130 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Charles Lyell (1797- 1875) (1797- 23 9:56 AM Uniformitarian theory of geological change Stratigraphy and the _______________ __________ BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 24 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 8 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Jean(1744-1829) (1744-1829) (1744- Transmutation of species BIO1130 Organismal Biology 25 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Essentialist explanation of change Transmutation (not Lamarck) Transformation – Finalism – Environmental (this is Lamarck) BIO1130 Organismal Biology 26 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Important stages in the history of Biology 19th century: Modern biology Darwin (1809-1882) (1809(1809-1882) Wallace (1823-1913) (1823(1823-1913) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 27 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 9 Lamarck’s theory Scale of organization Biology, biologists and Bioscience Darwin’s theory Time Time BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 28 9:56 AM Darwin’s five theories Darwin’s Darwin’ No constancy of species Common ancestry _________________ Population change (multiplication of species) Natural selection BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 29 9:56 AM Darwin’s five theories Darwin’s Darwin’ No constancy of species Fossils Extinction Transitional forms (Vestigial structures) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 30 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 10 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Darwin’s five theories – No constancy of species Darwin’s Darwin’ Fossils Invertebrate Petrified wood Insects in amber Figure 20.5 Mammoth in permafrost Darwin’s five theories – No constancy of species Darwin’s Darwin’ Extinction BIO1130 Organismal Biology 32 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Darwin’s five theories – No constancy of species Darwin’s Darwin’ Transitional forms Evolution of the horse Equus Equus Merychippus Pliohippus Mesohippus Merychippus Hyracotherium Nannipus Mesohippus Figure 20.13 Hyracotherium BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 11 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Darwin’s five theories – No constancy of species Darwin’s Darwin’ Transitional forms Archaeopteryx lithographica BIO1130 Organismal Biology Figure 20-17a 20-17a 20- Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 34 9:56 AM Darwin’s five theories – No constancy of species Darwin’s Darwin’ Transitional forms Puijila darwini Meet the discoverer BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 35 9:56 AM Darwin’s five theories Darwin’s Darwin’ Common ancestry - evidence Common Comparative anatomy Comparative embryology Vestigial structures Biogeography Molecules BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 36 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 12 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Darwin’s five theories - Common ancestry Darwin’s Darwin’ Comparative anatomy Homology – Divergent evolution BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 37 9:56 AM Darwin’s five theories - Common ancestry Darwin’s Darwin’ Comparative anatomy Homoplasy (analogous) – Convergent evolution BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 38 9:56 AM Darwin’s five theories - Common ancestry Darwin’s Darwin’ Comparative embryology BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 39 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 13 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Darwin’s five theories - Common ancestry Darwin’s Darwin’ Vestigial structures “Goose bumps Appendix Human coccyx Nictatating membrane BIO1130 Organismal Biology 40 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Darwin’s five theories - Common ancestry Darwin’s Darwin’ Molecules Cytochrome C amino acid sequence changes Human coccyx Darwin’s five theories Darwin’s Darwin’ No constancy of species Common ancestry _________________ Population change (multiplication of species) Natural selection BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 42 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 14 Biology, biologists and Bioscience __________ (1822-1895) (1822-1895) (1822Life from life not spontaneous generation Germ theory BIO1130 Organismal Biology 43 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Important stages in the history of Biology 19th century: Modern biology Cell theory (Schleiden and Schwann – 1860) – The basic unit of all organisms is __________ – Individual cells have all the characteristics of life and – All cell come from the division of other cells Schleiden (1804-1881) (1804(1804-1881) BIO1130 Organismal Biology 44 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Mendel (1822-1884) (1822-1884) (1822Rediscovered 1900. Law of segregation of characters Law of __________ __________ BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 45 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 15 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Important stages in the history of Biology 20th century Synthetic theory of evolution – Population genetics and natural selection based on Mendelian genetics Huxley (1887-1975) (1887(1887-1975) BIO1130 Organismal Biology 46 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Darwin’s five theories – Gradual change Darwin’s Darwin’ Biogeography – gradual population changes Thalassoma lucasanum (Cortez rainbow wrasse) Thalassoma bifasciatum (Blue headed wrasse) Continental drift 1 Continental drift 2 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 47 9:56 AM Important stages in the history of Biology 20th century: Modern biology Cellular respiration, ATP and mitochondia (1930-1950) Ecology (1940’s) DNA is the genetic materials (1943) DNA structure (1953) Gene regulation (1961) Genetic code (1960’s) Recombinant DNA experiments (1970’s) Cloning of a mammal (1997) Human genome sequence (2000) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 48 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 16 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Types of Biology Molecular biology and biochemistry Genetics Cell biology Physiology Developmental biology Morphology Evolution and systemic biology Ecology Behavioural biology Nutrition Disease mechanisms Pharmacology Genomics Proteomics BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 49 9:56 AM Important stages in the history of Biology 16th-18th century: The scientific revolution and the -18 start of modern sciences Douglas Adams 1952-2001 Four ages of sand –First - Telescope 1608 –Second - _____________ –Third - Computer chip 1961 –Fourth - Fiber optics 1980s BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 50 9:56 AM Some terms used in doing science Theory and Fact Hypothesis ________ Prediction (logical vs chronological) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 51 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 17 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Physical science Inanimate objects Physical and chemical laws Universal Natural science Animate objects More than physical and chemical laws (Genetics) Not Universal BIO1130 Organismal Biology 52 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Changing thoughts on what living things are Physicalists – with the exception of humans all living things are machines (Descartes, 17th century) __________ – physical and chemical laws apply but living things have a vital force (essence) Organicists (1930) – vital force replaced by genetic program and the importance of emergence (swarm behaviour) BIO1130 Organismal Biology BIO1130 53 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Physical science Inanimate objects Physical and chemical laws __________ Based on empirical observations Experimentation preferred method 9:56 AM Natural science Animate objects More than physical and chemical laws (Genetics) ____________ Based on historical narratives Induction most used method BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 54 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 18 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Induction vs. Deduction Deduction (from the general to the specific): All insects have wings and this animal is an insect. This animal has wings. Induction: (from the specific to the general) This animal is an insect and it has wings therefore all insects have wings. (many multiple observations!) BIO1130 Organismal Biology 55 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Physical science Inanimate objects Physical and chemical laws Universal Based on empirical observations Experimentation preferred method Single theory Single falsification enough to abandon a theory 9:56 AM Natural science Animate objects More than physical and chemical laws (Genetics) Not Universal Based on historical narratives Induction most used method Multiple theories Single falsification not necessary to abandon a theory BIO1130 Organismal Biology 56 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Multiple theories 9:56 AM Video 1, 2 Food competition Sexual competition Figure 1-10a 1- BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 19 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Anatomy of a scientific explanation (theory) Two parts – Pattern – Mechanism or process Questions to be asked – What? – How (proximate cause)? or Why (ultimate causes)? BIO1130 Organismal Biology 58 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Proximate causes Ultimate causes (Physical science-like science-like sciencebiology) (Natural science-like science-like sciencebiology) Phenotype – morphology and behaviour Mechanical (predictable) Here and now Genes in action Experiments Genotype - Genes and history Variable (probabilistic) Evolutionary past Changes in genetic programs Historical narratives BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 59 9:56 AM Additional experimental components Controls Control of variables Sampling error Repeat the test BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 60 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 20 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Stages in an investigation. Observations Questions of how and why Hypothesis Test (experiment) Conclusion BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 61 9:56 AM Fish capture sizes Observation: Over fishing is decreasing size and abundance of fish. Size quota had been implemented along with fishing bans. Question: Will size in fish populations change due to fish management strategies? BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 62 9:56 AM Fish capture size Hypothesis - If fishing induced evolution is irreversible, or slow to change than the populations should retain their character states after fishing ceases. _____ hypothesis - If fishing induced evolution is reversible, than the populations should return to their original character states after fishing ceases. BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 63 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 21 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Experiment Constant conditions, duplicate populations 2 sets of fish – remove 90% largest 2 sets of fish – remove 90% smallest 2 sets of fish – randomly remove 90% regardless of size BIO1130 Organismal Biology 64 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:56 AM Fish capture size Results 90 day 190 day BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 65 9:56 AM Fish capture size Conclusion? BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 66 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 22 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Darwin’s five theories – Natural selection Darwin’s Darwin’ Natural selection – Industrial melanism BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 67 9:56 AM Peppered moth Observation 1: Original museum collections had all white peppered moths and by 1900 traps collected 90% black. Question 1: Why did the moths shift from light to dark morphs? BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 68 9:56 AM Peppered moth Hypothesis 1: Fitness decreased when the moths that were more visible against the background colour of the trees. Null hypothesis1: Fitness remains the same and is not affected by the background. Hypothesis 2: The bark colour of the trees has changed. Null hypothesis 2: The bark colour of the trees has not changed. BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 69 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 23 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Peppered moth Experiment 1: Artificially rear light and dark morphs and place on tree and observe survival (fitness) Experiment 2: Locate light and dark coloured trees. BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 70 9:56 AM Peppered moth Result 1: Birds selected most visible moths Result 2: Dark trees showed same distribution as coal based industry BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 71 9:56 AM Peppered moth Question: Do moths “rest” on backgrounds that match their colouration? Question: What impact would the clean air act, that reduced pollutant immisions have on the moth population morphs? Question: What happens to other moths with light and dark colour morphs BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 72 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 24 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Distribution of scientific facts Journal selection Manuscript preparation _________________ Revision Publication BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 73 9:56 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 25 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course BIO 1130 taught by Professor Fenwick during the Fall '08 term at University of Ottawa.

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