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Unformatted text preview: Hadean and Archean eons Hadean and Archean eons. BIO1130 Organismal Biology Whirlpool galaxy M51 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 1 10:26 AM Geological time scale and life forms (Table 1.1 pg xii) Major Eons – Phanerozoic (543 Ma to present time) • Multicellular organisms – Proterozoic (2,500 – 543 Ma) • Oxygen atmosphere, single celled aerobic organisms – Archaean (3,800 – 2,500 Ma) • Anaerobic bacterial life, oxygen starts to accumulate – Hadean (4,600 – 3,800 Ma) • Formation of the solar system and planet, ends with origin of life BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 2 10:26 AM Geological time scale and building height (1floor – 60Ma, 72 floors, 12 feet/floor) Major Eons (Ma) – Phanerozoic • (543 Ma to present time, top 9 floors) – ____________ • (2,500 – 543 Ma, 33rd -63rd) – Archaean • (3,800 – 2,500 Ma, 12th – 33rd) – Hadean • (4,600 – 3,800 Ma, 0-12th) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 3 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 1 Hadean and Archean eons Geological time scale and life forms (Table 1.1 pg xii) Major Era – Phanerozoic (550 Ma to present time) • Cenozoic (65Ma to present time) – Dinosaurs disappear, mammals and birds • Mesozoic (251-65 Ma) – Flowering plants, dinosaurs, even more insects • Paleozoic (543-251 Ma) – Marine invertebrates, algae, “Cambrian explosion”, first land plants and insects. – Proterozoic (2,500 – 543 Ma) – Archaean (3,800 – 2,500 Ma) – Hadean (4,600 – 3,800 Ma) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 4 10:26 AM Geological time scale and building height ( 1floor – 60Ma, 72 floors, 12 feet/floor) Major Era – Phanerozoic • Cenozoic (65 Ma to present time, 72nd floor) • Mesozoic (251-65 Ma, 65th to 71st) • Paleozoic (543-251 Ma, 63th to 65th) – Proterozoic (2,500 – 543 Ma) – Archaean (3,800 – 2,500 Ma) – Hadean (4,500 – 3,800 Ma) Your life span = 0.0002 inches Human hair = 0.001 inches BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 5 10:26 AM Hadean eon (4,600 – 3,800 Ma) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 6 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 2 Hadean and Archean eons Galaxies BIO1130 Organismal Biology 7 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Sun video Our Solar system 1. Mercury 2. Venus 9. 8. 7. 3. Earth 6. 5. 4. Mars 5. Jupiter 6. Saturn 7. Uranus 4. 1. 2. 3. 8. Neptune 9. Pluto © NASA BIO1130 Organismal Biology 8 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Hadean eon Building phase ________________ Orion nubula (NASA) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 3 Hadean and Archean eons Earth 4,000 Ma Figure 2.7 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 10 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Origins of life on earth Special creation Extraterrestrial origins (__________) Spontaneous origins © NASA BIO1130 Organismal Biology 11 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Organic evolution “Carbon is central to life…carbon atoms link in chains, bind with other atoms to make the array of organic chemicals that constitute life itself, from DNA to toenails” – Richard Fortey – Life Carbon molecule BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 4 Hadean and Archean eons Wacky water Cohesion, adhesion and surface tension Solvent properties Ice formation Temperature BIO1130 Organismal Biology 13 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Wacky water Polar bonds and hydrogen bonding ________________ bonds ___________ bonds BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 2-5, 12 2- 14 10:26 AM Wacky water Solvent properties Figure F-13 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 15 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 5 Hadean and Archean eons Wacky water Ice and water formation Figure F.11 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 16 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Wacky water Temperature Specific heats of some liquids (joules) Liquids with high levels of hydrogen bonding Ammonia (NH3) Water (H2O) 4.70 4.18 Liquids with moderate levels of hydrogen bonding Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) 2.44 2.22 Liquids with low levels of hydrogen bonding Benzene (C6H6) Zylene (C8H10) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) 1.80 1.72 1.40 Chemical evolution Origins of organics (inorganic and organic) Prebiotic soups Hydrothermal vents ________________ BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 18 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 6 Hadean and Archean eons Miller-Urey Apparatus Miller-Urey Miller- Electrodes CH4 NH3 H2O H2 Spark discharge Gases Water out Condensor Water in Water droplets Water and organic compounds Boiling water BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Liquid water in trap Figure 2.8 19 10:26 AM Chemical evolution Origins of organics (monomer) Prebiotic soups Hydrothermal vents ____________ Figure 2.9 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 20 10:26 AM Chemical evolution Biopolymers (macromolecules) Proteins Nucleic acids Carbohydrate Lipids BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 21 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 7 Hadean and Archean eons Central Dogma of Biology 1. 2. 3. 2. 1. DNA Replication Transcription Translation 3. RNA Protein Figure 2.11 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 22 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Biotic chemistry (Polymers) Panspermia The RNA world – Ribozymes Proteins first Clays © NASA BIO1130 Organismal Biology 23 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Evolution of information flow from an RNA world RNA RNA DNA Protein RNA Protein BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 2.13 24 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 8 Hadean and Archean eons Bubble hypothesis for cells Microsphere Micelles Protocells BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 2.10 25 10:26 AM Micelle replication BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 26 10:26 AM Biological evolution: Protocells BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 27 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 9 Hadean and Archean eons Biological evolution: Protocells Glucose-phosphate Glucose-phosphate Phosphatase Starch Amylase Phosphate Maltose Maltose BIO1130 Organismal Biology 28 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM What is life and emergence? Organicists (1930) – vital force replaced by genetic program and the importance of emergence. Emergence - More than the sum of the parts Water Sodium chloride BIO1130 Organismal Biology 29 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM What is life and emergence? Emergence - _________________ Myoglobin Hemoglobin BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 30 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 10 Hadean and Archean eons What is life? (Figure 2.2) Self replicating - Life from life with a genetic program Metabolizing - Capturing and releasing energy Self regulating - A delicate balance Reproduce – life from life Evolving - Adapting and changing Responding - Sensing and interacting with the surrounding world Growth – increase in size BIO1130 Organismal Biology 31 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Prokaryotes - Domains Bacteria and Archaea Figure 2.17 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 32 10:26 AM Prokaryote diversity Figure 21.15 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 11 Hadean and Archean eons Morphological diversity Size Shape Mobility Cocci Spirillai Bacilli Squares Figure 21.2 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 34 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Bacterial cells ___________ Cytoplasm Pili Plamid _________ Flagellum Plasma membrane Capsule Peptidoglycan layer Outer membrane Figure 21.3 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 35 10:26 AM Bacterial cell walls Gram ___________ Capsule (may be present) Peptidoglycan layer Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Figure 21.6a BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 36 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 12 Hadean and Archean eons Bacterial cell walls Gram ___________ Capsule (may not be present) Outer membrane Peptidoglycan layer Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Figure 21.6b BIO1130 Organismal Biology 37 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Bacteria Flagellum Bearing Motor Cytoplasm Plasma membrane Peptidoglycan Outer membrane layer Figure 2.24 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 38 10:26 AM Bacterial reproduction Binary fission ______________ Transformation Transduction BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 39 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 13 Hadean and Archean eons Bacterial reproduction Binary fission 1. 2. Figure 21.10 3. 4. BIO1130 Organismal Biology 40 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Bacterial reproduction Bacteria ___________ plasmid transfer Bacterial Chromosome Plasmid 1. 2. F+ cell F- cell 4. 2. F+ cell F+ cell Figures10.6a BIO1130 Organismal Biology 41 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Bacterial reproduction Bacteria ___________ gene transfer 1. 2. 3. a- bc- d- a+ b+ c+ d+ a+ b+ c+ d+ a+ b+ c+ d+ a- bc- da+ b+ c+ d+ a+ b+ a+ b+ c+ d+ 4. a- b+ c- d- a- bc- d- 5. BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa a+ b- a+ b+ c+ d+ 6. Figures10.6b 42 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 14 Hadean and Archean eons Bacterial reproduction Transformation BIO1130 Organismal Biology 43 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Bacterial reproduction Transduction 1. 4. 2. 5. BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 3. 6. 7. Figure 10.7 44 10:26 AM Metabolic diversity in ATP production and carbon sources Autotrophic – Phototrophs – Chemoorganotrophs – Chemolithotrophs Heterotrophs – – – Photoheterotrophs Chemoorganoheterotrophs Chemolithotrophic heterotrophs BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 45 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 15 Hadean and Archean eons Redox pair Oxidized Reduced Figure 6.6 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 46 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Cellular respiration Figure 6.5 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 47 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 10:26 AM Metabolic diversity By products Initial electron donor Sugar H2 or organics H2 Electron acceptor From electron donor From electron acceptor O2 CO2 H2O SO42- (Sulfate) H2O or CO H2S (hydrogen sulfide) CO2 H2O CH4 (Methane) CH4 O2 CO2 H2O S2- or H2S O2 SO42- (Sulfate) H2O Fe3+ CO2 Fe2+ NH3 (Ammonia) O2 NO2- (Nitrite) H2O NO2- (Nitrite) O2 NO3- (Nitrate) H2O Organics BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 48 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 16 Hadean and Archean eons Bacterial importance Disease Nitrogen fixation Decomposition Unique biochemical pathways Extremophiles (Archea) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 49 10:26 AM Prokaryotes and humans Transmission Disease - Bacterium Airborne Legionellosis - Legionella pneumophobia Diptheria - Corynebacterium diphtherium Tuberculosis – Mycobacterium tuberculosis Arthropod Lyme disease – Borrelia burgdorfei Bubonic plague – Yersinia pestis Direct contact Gonorrhea – Neisseria gonoffhoeae Anthrax – Bacillus anthracis Food or waterborne Food poisoning – Salmonella enteritidis Cholera – Vibrio cholerae Listeriosis - Listeria monocytogenes BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 50 10:26 AM Nitrogen fixation Root nodules N2 + 8H+ + 8e− + 16 ATP 2NH3 + H2 + 16ADP + 16 Pi BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 51 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 17 Hadean and Archean eons Nitrogen cycle Figure 47.14 Extremophiles (Archaea) (Archaea) Archaea) Halophiles BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Thermophiles Figure 21.20 53 10:26 AM Fossil bacteria BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 54 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 18 Hadean and Archean eons Stromatolites © C Eeckhout Figure 2.14 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 55 10:26 AM Cyanobacteria and earth’s evolution earth’s earth’ CO2 + H2O + light (CH2O)n+ H2O + O2 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 56 10:26 AM Bacterial evolution Cyanobacteria Asexual reproduction “Living fossils” BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 57 10:26 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 19 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course BIO 1130 taught by Professor Fenwick during the Fall '08 term at University of Ottawa.

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