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BIO1130_lct06_StudentX3 - Microevolution Microevolution...

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Unformatted text preview: Microevolution Microevolution BIO1130 Organismal Biology 1 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM In this lecture topic What is microevolution? Allele frequencies and evolution – HardyWeinberg. Sources of variations in alleles. What is a species? BIO1130 Organismal Biology 2 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Important stages in the history of Biology 19th century: Modern biology Darwin (1809-1882) (1809(1809-1882) Wallace (1823-1913) (1823(1823-1913) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 3 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 1 Microevolution Darwin’s five theories Darwin’s Darwin’ No constancy of species Common ancestry Gradual changes Population change (multiplication of species) Natural selection BIO1130 Organismal Biology 4 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM allele man Mendel (1822-1884) (1822-1884) (1822Rediscovered 1900. Law of segregation of characters Law of independent assortment BIO1130 Organismal Biology 5 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Important stages in the history of Biology 20th century Synthetic theory of evolution – Population genetics and natural selection based on Mendelian genetics Huxley BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa (1887-1975) (1887(1887-1975) 6 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 2 Microevolution Microevolution Evolutionary changes that result from changes in _______ _______ in a population, or in chromosome structure or numbers due to ______ and recombination. BIO1130 Organismal Biology 7 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM these are some very good key words Some basic terms for microevolution Allele Phenotype ____________ genotyope Homozygous _____________ heterozygous Dominant and recessive BIO1130 Organismal Biology 8 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Incomplete dominance – snap dragons P - parental F1 – Generation1 CRCR Red F2 – Generation2 CRCR = 25% X X CwCR Pink CwCR = 50% CWCW White CWCW = 25% BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 11.13 9 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 3 Microevolution Genotype and allele frequencies Phenotype Genotype Number Total CR alleles Genotype frequency Total CW alleles 450 450/1000 = 0.45 2x450 = 900 0X450 =0 500 500/1000 = 0.50 1x500 = 500 1x500 = 500 50 50/1000 = 0.05 0x50 =0 2x50 = 100 1000 0.45 + 0.50 + 0.05 = 1.0 1400 p = 0.7 600 q = 0.3 CRCR CRCw CWCW Total Using the Hardy-Weinberg Principle Hardy-Weinberg Hardyp2+2pq+q2 = 1 CR frequency p=0.7 CW frequency p=0.3 CRCR = p2 CRCW = pq CwCR = pq CWCW = q2 CR frequency p=0.7 CW frequency p=0.3 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 11 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Allele frequencies in populations Initial allele frequencies in gametes A 0.6 a 0.4 A 0.6 a 0.4 60 45 48 36 30 16 15 0 AA 60 45 48 36 30 16 15 0 AA Aa aa Number of juveniles Final allele frequencies Number of adults • A: 2x36 + 48 = 120/200 = 0.6 • a: 48 + 2x16 = 80/200 = 0.4 • Final = Initial frequency Number of zygotes (Each of the 20 adults produces 10 gametes) 60 45 Aa aa 48 36 30 16 15 0 AA Aa aa BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 12 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 4 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principle’s assumptions Hardy-Weinberg principle’s Hardyprinciple’ No natural selection No mutation No genetic drift – population is large Gene flow Random mating BIO1130 Organismal Biology 13 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Initial allele frequencies in gametes A 0.6 Drift a 0.4 Number of zygotes Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy60 45 48 36 30 16 15 0 AA Aa A 0.6 a 0.4 60 45 60 48 45 36 30 16 aa Selection Number of juveniles Final allele frequencies Number of adults Mutation 48 36 30 15 16 Migration 15 0 0 AA Aa aa AA Aa aa BIO1130 Organismal Biology 14 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Initial allele frequencies in gametes a 0.4 Final allele frequencies A 0.675 a 0.325 Number of adults • A: 2x36 + 36 = 108/160 = 0.675 • a: 36 + 2x8 = 52/160 = 0.325 • Final = Initial frequency 60 45 36 36 30 8 15 0 AA Aa 60 45 48 36 30 16 15 0 AA aa Number of juveniles A 0.6 Number of zygotes Effect of selection Aa aa 25% of Aa and 50% aa die 60 45 36 36 30 8 15 0 AA Aa aa BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 15 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 5 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Effect of selection Allele frequencies Expected Observed p2 0.36 0.456 2pq 0.48 0.439 q2 0.16 0.105 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 16 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Effect of selection Average speed Revolutions / day Revolutions / minute Distance run Generation BIO1130 Organismal Biology Figure 17.6 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 17 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Effect of selection - ___________ BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 18 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 6 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Initial allele frequencies in gametes A 0.6 a 0.4 A 0.714 a 0.286 60 45 45 48 36 30 16 15 0 Aa aa All of aa die 48 36 30 15 0 0 AA 60 AA Aa aa Number of juveniles Final allele frequencies Number of adults A: 2x36 + 48 = 120/168 = 0.714 a: 48 + 0 = 48/168 = 0.286 Final = Initial frequency Number of zygotes Effect of selection – against recessive 60 45 48 36 30 15 0 0 AA Aa aa BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 19 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Effect of selection – against recessive BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 20 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Effect of selection – for heterozygote BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 21 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 7 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Effect of selection – for heterozygote Figure 17.14 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 22 9:58 AM Selection with multiple loci traits Directional selection __________ selection Disruptive selection Selection with multiple loci traits ____________ selection _________ selection _______ selection BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 17.9a 24 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 8 Microevolution Selection with multiple loci traits Stabilizing selection _______ selection _______ selection BIO1130 Organismal Biology Figure 17.9b 25 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Selection with multiple loci traits Stabilizing selection Mean birth mass (Bar graph) (curve) % mortality % of population Optimal birth mass Birth mass (Kg) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 17.10 26 9:58 AM Selection with multiple loci traits % fly larvae killed % fly larvae killed Stabilizing selection goldenrod galls Figure 17.11 Wasps Birds Gall diameter (mm) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 9 Microevolution Selection with multiple loci traits Stabilizing selection Goldenrod galls % fly larvae alive or killed Killed Alive Gall diameter (mm) Figure 17.11 Selection with multiple loci traits Disruptive selection Before selection After selection BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 17.9c 29 9:58 AM Selection with multiple loci traits Disruptive selection BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 25-5b 25- 30 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 10 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Initial allele frequencies in gametes a 0.4 Final allele frequencies A 0.6 a 0.4 Number of adults A: 2x36 + 46 = (118) 118/200 = 0.59 a: 46 + 2x18 = (92) 92/200 = 0.41 Final = Initial frequency 60 45 60 45 16 15 0 AA Aa aa A into a 1/100 60 46 48 45 36 30 48 36 30 Number of juveniles A 0.6 Number of zygotes Effect of mutation 18 16 15 48 36 30 16 15 0 AA Aa aa 0 AA Aa aa BIO1130 Organismal Biology 31 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Mutation BIO1130 Organismal Biology 9:58 AM Beneficial ___________ Deleterious Figure 16-20 16- 32 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Genetic code BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 14-5 14- 33 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 11 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Mutation Point mutations – Silent – Missense – ______________ – Frame shift Chromosomal mutations BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 34 9:58 AM Missense BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 35 9:58 AM ______________ BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 36 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 12 Microevolution Silent BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 37 9:58 AM Frame shift BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 38 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Mutation – sickle cell BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 14-21 14- 39 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 13 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Point mutation Normal: the one big fly had one red eye Missense: thr one big fly had one red eye ___________: the one big Frame shift: the one rbi gfl yha don ere dey BIO1130 Organismal Biology 40 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Figure 12-11 12- Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Inversion Mutation Point mutations Chromosomal mutations – – – – – – – Inversions Translocation Deletion Duplication Crossing over Polyploidy Genome duplication Translocation BIO1130 Organismal Biology 41 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Figure 12-11 12- Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Deletion Mutation Point mutations Chromosomal mutations – – – – – – – Inversions Translocation Duplication Deletion Crossing over Polyploidy Genome duplication Duplication BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 42 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 14 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Chromosomal mutations – crossing over Figure 10-14 10- BIO1130 Organismal Biology 43 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Chromosomal mutations – polyploidy Meiosis Selffertilization 2n = 6 4n = 12 Figure 18-24 18- BIO1130 Organismal Biology 44 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Chromosomal mutations – polyploidy Meiosis Species A 2n=6 Fertilization Meiosis Mitosis 2n=12 Meiosis SelfFertilization Tetrapod zygote 2n=12 Species B 2n=6 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 18-25 18- 45 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 15 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principle’s assumptions Hardy-Weinberg principle’s Hardyprinciple’ No natural selection No mutation No genetic drift – population is large Gene flow Random mating BIO1130 Organismal Biology 46 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Initial allele frequencies in gametes a 0.4 Final allele frequencies A .555 a .445 Number of adults • A: 2x31 + 49 = 111/200 = 0.555 • a: 49+ 2x20 = 89/200 = 0. 445 • Final = Initial frequency 60 45 49 20 15 0 AA Aa 60 45 49 31 30 20 15 0 AA 31 30 Drift aa Number of juveniles A 0.6 Number of zygotes Genetic drift 60 45 Aa aa 49 31 30 20 15 0 AA Aa aa BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 47 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Genetic drift BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 48 9:58 AM Figure 25-6 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 16 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Genetic drift – ______ _______ affect BIO1130 Organismal Biology 49 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Figure 25-6 Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Genetic drift – Founder affect BIO1130 Organismal Biology 50 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Initial allele frequencies in gametes A 0.6 a 0.4 A 0.48 a 0.52 60 45 60 45 48 36 30 16 15 0 AA 48 36 Number of juveniles Final allele frequencies Number of adults • A: 2x36 + 48 = 120/250 = 0.48 • a: 48 + 2x41 = 130/250 = 0.52 • Final = Initial frequency Number of zygotes Gene flow - migration 60 41 30 45 Aa 48 36 30 15 aa 16 15 0 AA Aa aa BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 0 AA 25 aa individuals Aa aa 51 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 17 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Gene flow - migration Source population New population Source population Seed A1A1 A1A1 A1A1 A1A1 A1A2 New population Gene flow A1A1 A1A1 A1A2 A1A1 A1A2 A1A1 A1A2 A1A1 A1A2 A1A2 A1A1 Frequency of A1 = 0.90 Frequency of A2 = 0.10 Frequency of A1 = 0.50 Frequency of A2 = 0.50 Frequency of A1 = 0.83 Frequency of A2 = 0.17 Frequency of A1 = 0.67 Frequency of A2 = 0.33 Figure 25-8b 25- BIO1130 Organismal Biology 52 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Nonrandom mating - Inbreeding Heterozygote parent Eggs Eggs Homozygote parent for A2 Eggs Sperm Homozygote parent for A1 A1 A1 Homozygote A1 A2 Heterozygote A2 A2 Homozygote Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 Generation 4 Figure 25-10 25- Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Nonrandom mating - Sexual dimorphism Beetle Scarlet tanager Lion Females Males Figure 25-15 25- BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 18 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Nonrandom mating - sexual selection Sexual selection – On males – female choice – On males – competition • Combat • Sperm competition • Infanticide BIO1130 Organismal Biology 55 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Sexual selection female choice riflebird Mean number of mates/male Tail feathers Shortened Normal Lengthened Figure 17.13 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 56 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Sexual selection Male competition - combat Seals V1 Seals V2 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Figure 25-14 25- 57 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 19 Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Sexual selection Male competition - combat BIO1130 Organismal Biology Figure 25-14a 25- Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 58 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Sexual selection Male competition – sperm competition __________ wheel BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 59 9:58 AM Hardy-Weinberg principles Hardy-Weinberg Hardy- Sexual selection Male competition – infanticide BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 60 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 20 Microevolution Speciation BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 61 9:58 AM Species concepts Biological species Phylogenetic species Ecological species Morphospecies Species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding populations, which are reproductively isolated from other such groups. Ernst Mayer (1942) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 62 9:58 AM Darwin Species! Species concepts Phylogenetic species BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 63 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 21 Microevolution Species concepts Morphospecies Yellow throated warbler Yellow rumped warbler Figure 18.4 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 64 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Species concepts Biological species Phylogenetic species Ecological species Morphospecies BIO1130 Organismal Biology 65 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Species concepts Ring species – Elaphe oboleta Figure 18.14 Black rat snake E. o. osoleta Yellow rat snake E. o. quadrivittato Texas rat snake Gray rat snake Everglades rat snake E. o. lindeimeri E. o. spiloides E. o. rossalleni BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 22 Microevolution Oregon salamander E. e. oregonensis Figure 18.15 Video Sierra Nevada salamander Painted salamander E. e. platensis E. e. picta Yellow-eyed salamander Yellow-blotched salamander E. e. xanthoptica E. e. croceater Monterey salamander E. e. eschscholtzii Large-blotched salamander E. e. klauberi Biological species Reproductive isolation Salamander speciation Prezygotic isolation – Ecological – Temporal – Behaviour – Mechanical – Gametic Postzygotic isolation BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 68 9:58 AM Biological species Reproductive isolation Prezygotic isolation – Habitat – Temporal – Behaviour – Mechanical – Gametic Video 7:13 Postzygotic isolation BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 23 Microevolution Biological species Reproductive isolation Prezygotic isolation – Habitat – Temporal – Behaviour – Mechanical comit orchid – Gametic Postzygotic isolation BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 70 9:58 AM Biological species Reproductive isolation Prezygotic isolation – Habitat – Temporal – Behaviour – Mechanical – Gametic Postzygotic isolation BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 71 9:58 AM invented in pakistan Biological species Reproductive isolation Prezygotic isolation Postzygotic isolation – Hybrid inviability – Hybrid sterility – Hybrid breakdown BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 72 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 24 Microevolution Allopatric Speciation - Vicariance 1. 2. 3. 4. Figure 18.18 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 73 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Allopatric Speciation - Dispersal 1. A 2. A C C D D B B 3. A 4. A C C D B BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa D B Figure 18.18 74 9:58 AM Grylloblattid – Ice age vicariance Video BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 75 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 25 Microevolution Sympatric speciation Native species Nonnative species Nonnative species Native species BIO1130 Organismal Biology 76 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Polyploidy and speciation Autopolyploid Selffertilization Meiosis 4n = 12 2n = 6 Figure 18.24 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 77 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Polyploidy and speciation Allopolyploid Species A 2n = 6 Gametes n=3 Meiosis Interspecific Species 2n = 6 2n = 14 Diploid gametes n=6 Meiosis Tetraploid zygote n = 12 Selffertilization Fertilization Mitosis Meiosis Meiosis Gametes n=3 Species B 2n = 6 Diploid gametes n=6 Figure 18.25 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 78 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 26 Microevolution Polyploidy and speciation Allopolyploid Triticum monococcum (einkorn) Unknown wild wheat Triticum turgidum (emmer) Triticum tauschii Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) Sterile hybrid 14AA X 14BB 14AB 28AABB x 14DD 42AABBDD Figure 18.26 BIO1130 Organismal Biology 79 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Second contact – Hybridization outcomes Fusion of the populations Reinforcement Hybrid zone formation Extinction of one population Creation of a new species BIO1130 Organismal Biology 80 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9:58 AM Second contact – Hybridization outcomes Isolated population diverges Possible outcomes: Hybrid zone Reinforcement OR Fusion Gene flow Hybrid Population (five individuals are shown) OR Barrier to gene flow Stability BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 81 9:58 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 27 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course BIO 1130 taught by Professor Fenwick during the Fall '08 term at University of Ottawa.

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