BIO1130_lct14_Organizing the living world_10x3

BIO1130_lct14_Organizing the living world_10x3 - Organizing...

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Unformatted text preview: Organizing the living world Organizing the living world Organizing the living world BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 1 7:55 AM Some initial definitions Classification Taxonomy Systematics Hierarchical BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 2 7:55 AM All organisms, from simple single celled protozoans to complex organisms such as insects and humans, classify their surrounding environment; often using simple dichotomous (Yes or No) outcomes to order the living world around them. BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 3 7:55 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 1 Organizing the living world Types of taxonomies Folk Artificial Mechanical Natural (evolutionay) Phylogenetic (cladistic) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 4 7:55 AM Types of taxonomies Folk Artificial Mechanical Natural (evolutionay) Phylogenetic (cladistic) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 5 7:55 AM Types of taxonomies Folk Artificial Mechanical Natural (Evolutionary) Phylogenetic (cladistic) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 6 7:55 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 2 Organizing the living world Evolutionary taxonomies Analogous Homoplasy - homologous Advanced - primitive characters Weight for the different characters BIO1130 Organismal Biology 7 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Homologies and analogies homoplasies BIO1130 Organismal Biology 8 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Darwin’s five theories - Common ancestry Darwin’s Darwin’ Comparative anatomy Homology – Divergent evolution Skull Brain Inner ear Ear drum Stapes Hyomandibula Throat BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 9 7:55 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 3 Organizing the living world Analogous Homoplasic structures BIO1130 Organismal Biology 10 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Homoplasy – convergent evolution Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa ds ar Li z Ic ht hy os au Bi rd s El ep ha nt s Pr im at es Ro de nt s W h do ale lp s a hi n ns d Pt er os au rs Di no sa ur s es m up ia ls ar s M ps id s on ot re M Sy na BIO1130 Organismal Biology rs Ichthyosaur Common dolphin Figure 27-2a 27- 11 7:55 AM Three main questions What is the natural underlying order? What types of characters are available to assess that order? How do we handle the data from character analysis? BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 12 7:55 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 4 Organizing the living world Types of characters Morphology Ultra-structure Embryology Behavior Fossils Molecules BIO1130 Organismal Biology 13 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Phenetic Taxonomy Correlation coefficients 0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 14 7:55 AM Types of taxonomies Folk Artificial Mechanical Natural (Evolutionary) Phylogenetic (Cladistic) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 15 7:55 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 5 Organizing the living world Representing groups of animals Dendrograms Phylogenetic tress Cladograms (Phylogenetic trees) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 16 7:55 AM Dendograms BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Vertebrata Cephalochordata Onychophora Urochordata Nematoda Chordata Nematomorpha Loricifera Hemichordata Kinorhyncha Echinodermata Priapulida Apicomplexa Actinopoda Ciliophora Euglenozoa Rhizopoda Granuloreticulosea 17 7:55 AM Uniramia Crustacea Chelicerata Arthropoda Tardigrada Annelida Mollusca Sipuncula Nemertea Bryozoa Brachiopoda Phoronida Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Rotifera Cycliophora Gnathostomulida Ctenophora Cnidaria Porifera BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 18 7:55 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 6 Organizing the living world Anatomy of a Cladogram (Phylogenetic tree) (Phylogenetic Outgroup Taxon 1 Taxon 2 Taxon 3 Taxon 4 Taxon 5 Taxon 6 Polytomy Branch Node (Adaptive radiation) Root BIO1130 Organismal Biology 19 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Monophyle and synapomorphies 1 2 3 B 4 C AAC GCT ACT AAA GGT ACT A AAA GCT ACT BIO1130 Organismal Biology 20 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Anatomy of a Cladogram (Phylogenetic tree) (Phylogenetic Monophyletic Polyphyletic Paraphyletic BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 21 7:55 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 7 Organizing the living world Cladistics - Useful characteristics Apomorphies • Derived characters within a group Plesiomorphies • Primitive characters within a group Synapomorphies • Derived characters shared between groups Symplesiomorphies • Shared primitive characters that are shared between groups BIO1130 Organismal Biology 22 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Phylogeny of animals Angiosperms Gymnosperms Pterophytes Mosses Lycophytes Hornworts Liverworts Green algae Figure 26.6 Phylogeny of plants Figure 25.10 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 8 Organizing the living world Conflicting interpretations Figure 19.13 Conflicting interpretations Hylabatidae Hyobates (Gibbon) Pongidae Pongo (orangutan) Gorilla Hominidae Pan (chimpanzee) Homo (human) BIO1130 Organismal Biology 26 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Sp rin gt ai Si l lv er fi s D h ra go n fl y C oc kr oa ch B ee tle Fl y Cladogram construction 0 0 0 0 0 Double jointed mandible Two pairs of wings Folding wing mechanism Metamorphosis Reduction of wings to haltere BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 27 7:55 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 9 Organizing the living world Sp rin gt ai Si l lv er fi s D h ra go n fl y C oc kr oa ch B ee tle Fl y Cladogram construction 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Double jointed mandible Two pairs of wings Folding wing mechanism Metamorphosis Reduction of wings to haltere BIO1130 Organismal Biology 28 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Sp rin gt ai Si l lv er fi s D h ra go n fl y C oc kr oa ch B ee tle Fl y Cladogram construction 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 Double jointed mandible Two pairs of wings Folding wing mechanism Metamorphosis Reduction of wings to haltere BIO1130 Organismal Biology 29 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Sp rin gt ai Si l lv er fi s D h ra go n fl y C oc kr oa ch B ee tle Fl y Cladogram construction 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 Double jointed mandible Two pairs of wings Folding wing mechanism Metamorphosis Reduction of wings to haltere BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 30 7:55 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 10 Organizing the living world Sp rin gt ai Si l lv er fi s D h ra go n fl y C oc kr oa ch B ee tle Fl y Cladogram construction 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 Double jointed mandible Two pairs of wings Folding wing mechanism Metamorphosis Reduction of wings to haltere BIO1130 Organismal Biology 31 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Sp rin gt ai Si l lv er fi s D h ra go n fl y C oc kr oa ch B ee tle Fl y Cladogram construction 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 Double jointed mandible Two pairs of wings Folding wing mechanism Metamorphosis Reduction of wings to haltere BIO1130 Organismal Biology 32 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Sp rin gt Si ai lv l er fi D ra s h go n C oc fly kr B oa ee c tl h Fl e y 7:55 AM Cladogram construction A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 E 0 0 0 0 0 1 Fl y C oc kr oa ch B ee tle fl y on D ra g is h ai l gt Si lv er f B 1 0 D E C 1 0 C D 0 B Sp rin A A - Double jointed mandible B - Two pairs of wings C - Folding wing mechanism D - Metamorphosis E - Reduction of wings to haltere BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 33 7:55 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 11 Organizing the living world Parsimony – The KISS principle Two changes A AA 1 GC T C AA 2 Four changes GC T C AA 3 GC T A AA 4 G GT A AA 5 T GG A AA 1 GC T C AA GC 2 T A AA 3 GG T C AA 4 GC A→C A→C C→G A→C T GG T A AA 5 C→G C→G AAA GCT AAA GCT Figure 27-3 27-3 27- BIO1130 Organismal Biology 34 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Parsimony – The KISS principle Species I Species II Species III Three phylogenetic hypotheses: I I II III II III II II III BIO1130 Organismal Biology 35 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 7:55 AM Parsimony – The KISS principle Site 1 2 3 4 Species I C T A T Species II C T T C Species III A G A C A G T T Ancestral sequence 1/C I 1/C I III II III III II II 1/C I 1/C 3/A 2/T I 1/C 2/T 3/A 3/A 4/C III II 4/C I II 2/T 4/C II III III I 3/A 4/C 2/T 4/C 2/T 3/A 6 events 7 events 7 events BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 36 7:55 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 12 Organizing the living world Homology vs. homoplasy (analogy) Octopus Fish The camera eye BIO1130 Organismal Biology 37 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Homology vs. homoplasy (analogy) Octopus 7:55 AM Fish The camera eye BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa 38 7:55 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 13 ...
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