Evolution, Ecology & Biodiversity - Key Words

Evolution, Ecology & Biodiversity - Key Words -...

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E VOLUTION , E COLOGY IODIVERSITY K EY W ORDS - Abiotic factors - NON-LIVING - Chemical / Physical aspects in environment - CAN impact evolution - E.g. - Climatic o Temperature – cold = less biodiversity o Water Availability – change b/w wet/dry environments, modify continents o Wind – “churn” water, keep planet at constant T o Light – more c = higher T - E.g. - Non-Climactic o Salts – minerals, allow for biochemical rxns o PH – 7 - 7.5 to maintain life - Adaptation (related to natural selection) - Organism becomes BETTER SUITED for its environment - Specific FEATURES help it get better - Occurs over many generations - Better adapted = more likely to survive / reproduce - E.g. - horses teeth = better grinding - Analogy (Homoplasy, Convergent Evolution) - SAME function, DIFFERENT origin (ancestor) - E.g. – bee wings vs. hummingbird wings - Aphotic Zone - Area in AQUATIC environments - NO PHOTOSYNTHESIS occurs b/c < 1% light penetrates - Inhabitants MUST be able to live in COMPLETE darkness - Oceans: horizontal OCEANIC zone, Freshwater: horizontal limnetic zone - E.g. – anglerfish, giant squid - Benthic Zone - Ecological region @ LOWEST level of AQUATIC environments - Includes layer LINING water + sub-layers - Oceans: horizontal OCEANIC zone, Freshwater: horizontal limnetic + littoral zone - E.g. - Layer LINING body of water, includes: o sand bottoms, rock outcrops, corals and bay mud - Biodiversity - VARIATION of life forms w/I ONE ecosystem or ENTIRE earth - HELPS species survive - Measures HEALTH of system, indicates THREAT of extinction - E.g. – Amazon = MOST biodiverse ecosystem
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- Biomass - TOTAL MASS of living matter in ONE AREA at ONE TIME - (Mass / Unit Area) OR total mass in community - LARGER biomass ≠ ↑ primary productivity (DEPS ability of materials IN BIOMASS) - E.g. – Open Oceans, Tropical Rain Forest - Biomass Pyramids (Energy Pyramids) - biomass @ each trophic level - Changes at ANY level affect ALL other levels! - CAN have weird shapes! - E.g. - Producers herbivores carnivores top carnivores o P ↓ , TC ↓ o TC ↓ decrease , C ↑ , P / H ↓ - E.g. – Temperate Grassland = Classic Shape - E.g. – Temperate Rainforest o Small # of producers b/c they are LARGE plants = major energy source, NOT as many in ONE area o LARGE plants = COVERED in THOUSANDS of “insects” - Biomes - DISTINCTIVE plant / animal community - ADAPTED to natural environment, latitude, elevation, terrain - ABIOTIC FACTORS of temperature / precipitation - Canada’s Major Biomes o E.g. – Tundra (“Frozen Desert”) Temp: (-15 to -5 o C) warmer in summer = EXPLOSION of plants Precip: (0 to 80 mm) moisture DOESN’T evaporate “low alpine vegetation” Migration = ABSENSE of predators = ↑ food availability o E.g. – Taiga (Boreal Forest) Temp: (-5 to 2 o C) Precip: (40 to 190 mm) “tree-line” Conifers Acidic Trees STORE nutrients = NUTRIENT poor 1/5 areas w/ LARGEST amt of primary productivity
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course BIO 1130 taught by Professor Fenwick during the Fall '08 term at University of Ottawa.

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Evolution, Ecology &amp; Biodiversity - Key Words -...

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