Key Words - Biology biologists and biosciences Ages of sand...

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Biology biologists and biosciences Ages of sand - A model created by Douglas Adams (1952-2001) - Divides the progress of modern science into four stages of sand - Telescope, microscope, the silica chip, and fibre optic cables are the four ages Analogy - Two structures which perform the same function but evolved differently - They may have evolved together through a process called “convergent evolution” - An example of analogous structures is the wings of a bird vs the wings of a butterfly Binomen - System used to names organisms - Consists of two names, the Genus (capitalized, italics or underlined) - And the species (lowercase, italics or underlined) Binomial nomenclature - The system of nomenclature for animals - Species are named by their "binomen": a generic name and a specific name - Subspecies have a name composed of three names, a "trinomen" Biogeography - The study of the distribution of biodiversity over space and time - It aims to reveal where organisms live, and at what abundance - Through works of Wallace, Darwin, etc. it became the basis for modern biology Catastrophe theory - Punctuated equilibrium: evolution occurs rapidly from catastrophic events Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) - Catastrophes include volcanic activity, floods, and meteors - Species which can survive are only ones who live on, evidence: Burgess Shale fossils Cell theory - All organisms are composed of cells Schleiden and - Individual cells have all the characteristics of life Schwann (1860) - All cells come from the division of other cells Chronological prediction - A prediction of what will happen in the future - Not necessarily based on logic, trends, or reason - Differs from a scientific logical prediction Cladogram - A branching diagram to classify living organisms on the basis of shared ancestry - Endpoints of branches represent different species of organisms - Divergent points indicate common ancestor: illustrates phylogenic relationships Common ancestry - The concept that all organisms evolved from a common ancestral organism - Proposed by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788) Constancy of species - The belief that all species are unique, unchanging, and placed on earth by God - Evidence appears to challenge this belief leading to a theory by Charles Darwin Control - Treatment that tests the result with no experimental manipulation - Also includes methods of control such as: Control of variables, Sampling error (precision), Repeat the test Convergent evolution - This occurs when species evolve by separate pathways to the same result - Result is “homoplasy”
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- Example: analogous structures Cuvier (Georges) - Lived from 1769-1832 - Proposed the catastrophe theory - Explained extinction of species Darwin (Charles) - Lived from 1808-1882 - Travelled for 5 years on the S.S. Beagal , collecting species from various islands - 5 theories and the book “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” Darwin (Erasmus) - Lived from 1731-1802, grandfather of Charles Darwin - Writings on botany and zoology suggested a “common descent” - Ideas based on: developmental changes, artificial selection, and vestigial structures
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