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Organizing the living World - Keywords-1

Organizing the living World - Keywords-1 - Key Word...

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Key Word Definition Key Points Adaptive Radiation A cluster of closely related species that are each adaptively specialized to a specific habitat or food source A rapid evolutionary disparity characterized by an increase in the morphological and ecological diversity of a single, rapid diversifying lineage Advanced Characters A character that is not in the same state as the outgroup Designated by 1,2,3... Analogous Due to convergent evolution, similar structures with similar functions, but species are not closely related Apomorphy Derived character within a group, something changes in the organism Artificial taxonomy Was written down Ancient taxonomy List that took all the cultures and combined them, long and tedious Were reorganized by Linnaeus, made many mistakes By the time of the roman empire that extended over all of Western Europe, and around the Mediterranean these lists of natural things included animals and plants that were economically or medicinally important to the Empire The list grew longer and were based on detailed descriptions of the objects being classified rather than unique names for the animals or plants Autopomorphy A derived trait that is unique to a given terminal group Binomen A name consisting of two names : a generic name and a specific name Linnaeus found a solution and he took these great lists and reduced every unique organism in the list to a name with two parts Genus Speices
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Brantor canadensis Canadian goose Camera Eye Character Convergence Structures that retain similar functions but are not a result of common ancestry; due to the adaptation to similar environments Ex: Morphology: Shape of the whole body Molecules: DNA sequences, look for changes Character Polarity A distinction, for a given character, between an ancestral state and a derived state Character Reversal When a character that is unique to a taxon group reverts to more ancestral level in a taxon within this group Type of homeoplasy Clade A monophyletic group of organisms that share homologous features derived from a common ancestor Example mammals They have a unique set of derived characters Cladistics An approach to systematics that uses shared derived characters to infer the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of groups Produces phylogenetic hypotheses and classifications that reflect only the branching pattern of evolution, ignoring the morphological divergence Were able to analyze without subjectivity Cladogram A branching diagram in which the endpoints of the branches represent different species of organisms, used to illustrate phylogenetic relationships A lot more distinct then a dendrogram Could be phylum, or family, doesn't have to be taxa Consists of a sister group or outgroup Nodes in the model mean that evolutionary
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