Proterozoic Eon - Key Words

Proterozoic Eon - Key Words - PROTEROZOIC EON KEY WORDS 9 +...

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P ROTEROZOIC E ON K EY W ORDS - 9 + 2 organization - eurkayotic cell’s flagella/cilia - “duplet” organizations = 2 microtubules / 1 dyenin arm (total 9 duplets) - spiral / propeller movement - Alternation of Generations - Haploid (gamete producing) phase followed by diploid (self preservation) phase o Asexual Reproduction = mitosis = NO VARIATION! o Sexual Reproduction = meiosis = VARIATION! - E.g. – plant-like protists (brown algae) - Amoeboid Movement - Actin + myosin + ATP interact strongly = ectoplasm (solid) - Ectoplasm (liquid) hits hyaline cap, deflects back along sides, solidifies at end - E.g. – white blood cell - Antibody (Immunoglobins) - Proteins in blood - Used to identify “foreign” objects - Y shaped at ends, each only fits into a specific germ - Antigen - “foreign” objects within body - STIMULATES production of antibodies + combine specifically WITH them to NEUTRALIZE themselves! - E.g. – bacteria, cells of transplanted organs, toxins - Archaea - 1 / 3 phylogenetic tree of prokaryotes - unicellular, lack nuclei o CAN live in extremely high / low temperatures o SOME live in salty, acidic, alkaline water o SOME found in geysers, black smokers, oil wells - Asexual Reproduction - Used commonly by single-cell creatures - NO VARIATION offspring / parents = identical - NO Gestation period, new generation created instantly w/ MITOSIS of parent - Types: o Binary Fission (bacteria) o Budding (plants) o Spores (fungi)
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- Bacteria - Unicellular organism - Replication using binary fission - IF attack human body, use its nutrients as source of energy PARASITIC - Shapes: o Bacilli (rod-shaped) o Cocci (ball-shaped) o Spirilla (spiral-shaped) - Bacteriophage - Virus that infects bacteria - Inject viral DNA into bacteria - Head: protein, Inside: DNA - Capsid Protein - Phage: protein head casing - Enveloped: inside infected cell, protein casing around DNA - Encompasses DNA - Chloroplast - Plant cells only - Where photosynthesis takes place - Theory of Endosymbiosis o Ancient chloroplast / mitochondria originated from bacteria o Engulfed by cell BUT offered symbiotic relationship o Gave UP functions (reproduction) BUT gained permanent space - Cilia - 1/3 modes of locomotion for UNICELLULAR organisms - Metachronal wave - Planar movement – ONE surface only - 9+2 arrangement o Bending – duplets closer to ground lengthen, others shorten, pull cirri DOWN and then opposite - Contractile Vacuole - Plant & Animal Cells - Common in freshwater protists - Osmoregulation USES ATP! - Vacuole that collects extra water from cytoplasm and expels from cell - Diploid - Full set of genetic material - 2 copies of each chromosomes - In humans o 1 haploid / parent = 1 diploid child
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- Diplontic - In Gametic Meiosis o Zygote divides mitotically o Diploid Zygote copies undergo meisosis to make haploid cells - VARIATION! -
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course BIO 1130 taught by Professor Fenwick during the Fall '08 term at University of Ottawa.

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Proterozoic Eon - Key Words - PROTEROZOIC EON KEY WORDS 9 +...

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