Ch02_Outline - Chapter2 Rocks:Materialsof theSolidEarth...

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 Chapter 2  Rocks: Materials of  the Solid Earth
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        Rock Cycle Shows the interrelationships among  the three rock types   Earth as a system: The   rock cycle Magma Crystallization Igneous rock Weathering, transportation, and  deposition
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        Rock Cycle Earth as a system: The rock cycle   Sediment Lithification Sedimentary rock Metamorphism Metamorphic rock Melting Magma
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        Rock Cycle Earth as a system: The rock cycle   Full cycle does not always take place  due to "shortcuts" or interruptions e.g., sedimentary rock melts e.g., igneous rock is metamorphosed e.g., sedimentary rock is weathered e.g., metamorphic rock weathers
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    Figure 2.2 The  Rock  Cycle
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    Igneous Rocks  Form as magma cools and  crystallizes    Rocks formed inside Earth are called  plutonic  or  intrusive  rocks  Rocks formed on the surface  Formed from  lava  (a material similar to  magma, but without gas) Called  volcanic   or  extrusive   rocks
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    Igneous Rocks  Crystallization of magma  Ions are arranged into orderly patterns  Crystal size is determined by the rate of  cooling  Slow rate forms large crystals  Fast rate forms microscopic crystals  Very fast rate forms glass  
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    Igneous Rocks  Classification is based on the rock's  texture and mineral constituents   Texture   Size and arrangement of crystals  Types Fine-grained —fast rate of cooling Coarse-grained —slow rate of cooling  Porphyritic  (two crystal sizes)—two rates  of cooling  Glassy —very fast rate of cooling    
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      Fine-Grained  Igneous Texture Figure 2.4 A
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    Coarse-Grained  Igneous Texture Figure 2.4 B
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       Porphyritic Igneous  Texture Figure 2.4 D
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    Obsidian Exhibits  a Glassy Texture Figure 2.6
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    Igneous Compositions Composed mainly of silicate  minerals  Two major groups   Dark silicates = rich in iron and/or  magnesium Light silicates = greater amounts of  potassium, sodium, and calcium
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    Igneous Compositions Granitic rocks 
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Ch02_Outline - Chapter2 Rocks:Materialsof theSolidEarth...

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