Lab 10 (1).docx - Gabriella Heltzel Dr Panthi...

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Gabriella HeltzelDr. Panthi04/20/20Saponification - Making of SoapAbstractThe purpose of this laboratory experiment was to create soap from oils and fats by performing a saponification reaction. Saponification happens when a fatty acid is reacted with NaOH. Salts of fatty acids are crested as well as glycerol. The results yielded 3,857% with cold process and 46.71% with Hot process.IntroductionThe product of saponification is a salt because the product of base hydrolysis of the fatty acids is the production of carboxylate salt which is a sodium salt. The same thing happens in saponification. Saponification is the alkaline hydrolysis of a fat or oil which leads to the formation of soap. In order for saponification to work, the three ester bonds in the triglyceride must be broken using heat exposure under basic conditions. A carboxylic acid and alcohol will beformed from the bond breaking. Lastly, a carboxylic acid is deprotonated therefore, the negative charge on the oxygen will be attracted to the positively charged ions in the sodium, which makes the soap.Materials and MethodsThermometerGlass rodHot plate150mL beaker
Gabriella HeltzelDr. Panthi04/20/20NaOH pelletsCold water250mL beakerCrisco400mL beaker250mL Erlenmeyer flask600mL beakerVacuum flaskBuchner funnelCarboxylic acidAlcoholExperimental ProcedureI. Cold ProcessWhen using a thermometer in this experiment, never use it to stir liquids. Instead, use a fire polished glass rod to properly measure the temperature of a liquid, hold the thermometer so that its bulb is suspended in the center of the liquid while reading the mercury level. If the liquid is being heated on a hot plate, do not the thermometer bulb to rest on the bottom of the container, asit will then be overheated. Remove the thermometer from the container after each reading. Note: the thermometer supplied does not require shaking down before or after reading. Plug in a hot plate and set to high. Weigh a 150 ml beaker on the trip scale and add 8.34g of NaOH pellets to it. Handle NaOH with care as NaOH can burn the skin and is especially harmful to the eyes. In the hood, add 25 ml of cold water to the beaker. Stir the mixture of NaOH pellets and water, untila clear solution results. Caution: the beaker will become very hot as the NaOH dissolves. Weigh a 250ml beaker on the trip-scale and add 58.57g of fat (Crisco vegetable shortening works well) to it. Then place the beaker on the hot plate with low heat and with occasional stirring, melt the fat to melt completely. Warm the melted fat to between 40-50 oC. Remove the fat from the hot plate and add the lye solution to the fat with stirring. Stir the fat and NaOH mixture continuously
Gabriella HeltzelDr. Panthi04/20/20and until an emulsion is formed. Your mixture should look like a thick, light yellow milk shake and should stay emulsified (should not separate into a fat and NaOH layer). If your emulsion separates, the fat is too hot and needs to cool. Let the mixture cool on the bench top with

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