Chapter 1 - Chapter One Themes in the Study of Life...

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Chapter One: Themes in the Study of Life Definitions 1) Evolution: is the process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today. 2) Biology: is the scientific study of life. 3) Emergent properties: are properties that are not present in the preceding level. 4) Reductionism: is the reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study. 5) A eukaryotic cell: is subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-closed organelles such as the nucleus that contains the cell’s DNA. 6) A prokaryotic cell: lacks any kind of membrane-closed organelles including the nucleus. This means that it doesn’t have a nucleus and the cell’s DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell. 7) DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): is the substance of genes. 8) Genes: are the units of inheritance the transmit information from parents to offspring. 9) Genome: is the entire “library” of genetic instructions that an organism inherits. 10) Negative feedback: in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process. 11) Positive feedback: in which an end product speeds up its production. 12) Taxonomy: is the branch of biology that names and classifies species. 13) Descriptive science/ Discovery science: describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data. 14) Inductive reasoning: is reasoning from a set of specific observations to reach a general conclusion. 15) Deductive reasoning: Using general laws to reach specific conclusions.
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Harounal-rashed during the Spring '11 term at King's College London.

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Chapter 1 - Chapter One Themes in the Study of Life...

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