Chapter 2 - C hapter T wo: T he Chemical Context of L ife...

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Chapter Two: The Chemical Context of Life Definitions 1) Matter: is anything that takes up space and has mass. 2) Element: is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions. 3) Compound: is a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio. 4) Trace elements: are those elements required by an organism in only minute quantities. 5) Atom: is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element. 6) Radioactive isotope: is one in which the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy. 7) Energy: is the capacity to cause change. 8) Potential energy: is the energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure. 9) Valence electrons: are the electrons found in the outermost shell. 10) Valence shell: is the outermost electron shell. 11) Orbital: is the three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time. 12) Covalent bond: is the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms.
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Chapter 2 - C hapter T wo: T he Chemical Context of L ife...

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