Chapter 5 - Chapter Five: The Structure and Function of...

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Chapter Five: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Definitions 1) A polymer: is a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds. 2) Monomers: are the repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer. 3) Condensation / Dehydration reaction: is when monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule. 4) Hydrolysis: is when a polymer is broken down into its original monomers through gain of a water molecule. Notes - Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides: o They have an empirical formula of CH 2 O. o Depending on the location of the carbonyl group, a sugar is either: An aldose: the carbonyl group is at one end of the molecule. A ketose: the carbonyl group is in the middle of the molecule. o Depending on the number of asymmetrical carbon atoms in the monomer, a sugar is: A triose with three carbon atoms. A pentose with five carbon atoms. A hexose with six carbon atoms. o There are two types of glucose: Alpha (α): the hydroxyl group attached to the number 1 carbon is positioned below the plane of the ring. Beta (β): the hydroxyl group attached to the number 1 carbon is positioned above the plane of the ring. o In aqueous solutions, many sugars form rings. Disaccharides: o They consist of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage.
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o A glycosidic linkage is a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction. o Examples: Maltose (malt sugar) is made up of two glucose monomers. Sucrose (table sugar) is made up of a glucose monomer and a fructose monomer. Lactose (sugar in milk) is made up of a glucose monomer and a galactose monomer. Polysaccharides: o They are macromolecules, polymers of many monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. o Functions: Storage: Starch: o A polysaccharide made up of glucose monomers. o
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Chapter 5 - Chapter Five: The Structure and Function of...

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