Chapter 9 - C hapter N ine: Cellula r Respi rat ion...

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Chapter Nine: Cellular Respiration Definitions 1) The prosthetic groups are non-protein components essential for the catalytic functions of certain enzymes. Notes - The relocation of electrons releases energy stored in organic molecules and this energy is ultimately used to synthesize ATP. - Electrons are transferred with a proton within a hydrogen atom. - An electron loses potential energy when it shifts from a less electronegative atom toward a more electronegative one. - Redox reactions: Oxidation: o Adding oxygen atoms. o Removing hydrogen atoms or electrons. o Releases energy. o Because oxygen is so electronegative, it is one of the most potent of all oxidizing agents. Reduction: o Removing oxygen atoms. o Adding hydrogen atoms or electrons. o Absorbs energy. - Types of energy releasing in cells: Aerobic respiration:
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It is also called cellular respiration. o Organic compound (becomes oxidized to CO 2 / reducing agent)) + Oxygen (becomes reduced to H 2 O/ oxidizing agent) Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy (ATP + Heat). o 38 ATPs are produced from aerobic respiration. o Parts of aerobic respiration: Substrate- level phosphorylation: It is when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from an organic substrate molecule to ADP in order to synthesize ATP. Glycolysis: o It occurs in the cytosol. o It consists of ten different steps; first five are energy investment phase and the other five are called the payoff phase. o It does not require the presence of oxygen. o A glucose (6-C) molecule is broken down into two pyruvic acid molecules (3-C). o Products: 2 pyruvate molecules. 2 NADHs. 4 ATPs (net 2 ATPs because 2 ATPs are needed to begin glycolysis) o Kinases are enzymes that move a phosphate group from ATP. o NAD + (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is reduced to NADH by an enzyme called dehydrogenase that removes a pair of hydrogen atoms from the substrate and delivers two electrons and one proton to its coenzyme NAD + and pumping the extra H + to the intermembrane space. Citric-acid cycle:
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Chapter 9 - C hapter N ine: Cellula r Respi rat ion...

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