Chapter 10 - C hapter Ten Photosynthesis Definitions 1...

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Chapter Ten: Photosynthesis Definitions 1) Chlorophyll: is the green pigment located within the chloroplasts. 2) Mesophyll: is the tissue in the interior of the leaf. 3) Stomata: are microscopic pores that are found on the exterior bottom part of the leaf and allow gas exchange. 4) Stroma: is the dense fluid within the chloroplast and that is enclosed by an envelope of two membranes. 5) Thylakoids: an elaborate system of interconnected membranous sacs. 6) Grana: the way thylakoid sacs are stacked (mainly columns). 7) Light: is a form of energy known as electromagnetic energy or electromagnetic radiation. 8) Visible light: has a wavelength between 380 nm and 750 nm. 9) Spectrophotometer: is a machine that directs beams of light of different wavelengths through a solution of the pigment and measures the fraction of the light transmitted at each wavelength. 10) Absorption spectrum: is a graph plotting a pigment’s light absorption versus wavelength. Notes - Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, certain other protists and some prokaryotes. - NADPH is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. - In general, when an electron is excited and t falls back to the ground state, photons are given off. The afterglow is called fluorescence. - P680 + is the strongest biological oxidizing agent known. - Photosynthesis: Plants: CO 2 + 2 H 2 O + light energy [CH 2 O] + H 2 O + O 2 .
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Sulfur bacteria: CO 2 + 2 H 2 S + light energy [CH 2 O] + H 2 O + 2S. General: CO 2 + 2 H 2 X + light energy [CH 2 O] + H 2 O + 2X. - Carbons in sugar, oxygen in sugar and oxygen in water are all from CO 2 . Hydrogens in sugar, hydrogen in water and oxygen in O 2(g) are all from water molecules. - Stages of photosynthesis: Light reactions: o The photo part of photosynthesis. o It occurs in the thylakoids. o Photophosphorylation: is the generation of ATP using chemiosmosis using the energy obtained from light. o Pigments: are substances that absorb visible light: Chlorophyll a: blue green color. Accessory pigments: Chlorophyll b: olive green color. Carotenoids: o They are hydrocarbons that are various shades of yellow and orange. o
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Chapter 10 - C hapter Ten Photosynthesis Definitions 1...

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