Intro to Bio notes, ch. 5

Intro to Bio notes, ch. 5 - C hapter 5: The St ructu re and...

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Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules The molecule of life o All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules – carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids o Macromolecules – large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms o Macromolecules are polymers built from monomers o A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks o The small building blocks that make up polymers are called monomers o Three of four classes of biological macromolecules are polymers Carbs Proteins Nucleic acids o An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers o Synthesis and breakdown of biological polymers occurs via: Dehydration – synthesis of polymer, removes water forming a new bond Hydrolysis – breakdown on polymers, adds water breaking bond Diversity of polymers o Cells have thousands of macromolecules o Macromolecules: Vary among cells of organisms Vary among individual species Vary even more between species Carbs serve as fuel building material o Most simple carbs are monosaccharides, or single sugars o Carbohydrate polymers are called polysaccharides or disaccharides(2)
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Intro to Bio notes, ch. 5 - C hapter 5: The St ructu re and...

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