Copyright © 2003 American Psychological Society
IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
ences, and how to enhance cogni-
We need to identify the brain
processes that influence cogni-
tion. Jensen has found correla-
cognitive tasks (mental process-
ing speed), the brain’s electrical
response to stimuli, and how
quickly an injection of glucose is
absorbed by the brain. Hope for
further advance in this area lies
in new techniques of viewing
what brain centers are active
when different cognitive tasks
are being done.
We should learn more about so-
cial multipliers. Boozer and Cac-
ciola (2001) showed that when
reduced class size raises aca-
demic performance, peer inter-
action multiplies that rise and
accounts for virtually all of the
The relative potency of Whites’
and Blacks’ social multipliers
should be compared.
Although teaching children “how
to think” is desirable, we should
recognize that this will not neces-
sarily enhance numeracy and lit-
eracy. The focus must be on
teaching reading and arithmetic
skills. And note that if we really
want to enhance those skills,
there will have to be an attitude
shift, so that Americans welcome
core subjects that make greater
cognitive demands. If all parents
and children were like Chinese
Americans, the “nation’s report
card” would improve dramati-
Above all, we must go beyond
to develop a theory of intelli-
gence with a sociological dimen-
sion. In this theory,
play an important role. Within
every generation, people com-
pete to win, and, therefore,
always help explain why some
people excel across so many cog-
Deary, I.J. (2001).
Intelligence: A very
. Oxford, En-
gland: Oxford University Press.
April 21). Great leap forward.
Jensen, A.R. (1998).
The g factor: The
science of mental ability
1. Address correspondence to J.R.
Flynn, POLS, University of Otago, Box
56, Dunedin, New Zealand; e-mail:
Boozer, M., & Cacciola, S.E. (2001).
Inside the black
box of Project STAR: Estimation of peer effects us-
ing experimental data
(Center Discussion Paper
No. 832). New Haven, CT: Yale University
Economic Growth Center.
Greenfield, P. (1998). The cultural evolution of IQ.
In U. Neisser (Ed.),
The rising curve: Long-term
gains in IQ and related measures
Washington, DC: American Psychological As-
Howard, R.W. (1999). Preliminary real-world evi-
dence that average intelligence really is rising.