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Air Quality Modeling - Reading Chap 7.3 Air Quality...

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08/12/09 1 Air Quality Modeling Overview of AQ Models Gaussian Dispersion Model Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) Models Reading: Chap 7.3
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08/12/09 2 Overview
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08/12/09 3 Overview Air Quality Models are mathematical formulations that include parameters that affect pollutant concentrations. They are used to Evaluate compliance with NAAQS and other regulatory requirements Determine extent of emission reductions required Evaluate sources in permit applications What is the level of my exposure to these emissions? Is my family safe? Where is safe? How about the adverse impact on the environment (plants, animals, buildings)? How to predict the impact of emissions resulting from population growth?
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08/12/09 4 Source Dispersion Model Receptor Model Emission Model Meteorological Model Chemical Model Temporal and spatial emission rates Topography Chemical Transformation Pollutant Transport Equilibrium between Particles and gases Vertical Mixing Types of AQ Models
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08/12/09 5 Emission Model Estimates temporal and spatial emission rates based on activity level, emission rate per unit of activity and meteorology Meteorological Model Describes transport, dispersion, vertical mixing and moisture in time and space Chemical Model Describes transformation of directly emitted particles and gases to secondary particles and gases; also estimates the equilibrium between gas and particles for volatile species
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08/12/09 6 Source Dispersion Model Uses the outputs from the previous models to estimate concentrations measured at receptors; includes mathematical simulations of transport, dispersion, vertical mixing, deposition and chemical models to represent transformation. Receptor Model Infers contributions from different primary source emissions or precursors from multivariate measurements taken at one ore more receptor sites. When are model applications required for regulatory purposes?
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08/12/09 7 Regulatory Application of Models PSD : Prevention of Significant Deterioration of Air Quality in relatively clean areas (e.g. National Parks) SIP : State Implementation Plan revisions for existing sources and to New Source Reviews (NSR)
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08/12/09 8 Classifications of AQ Models Developed for a number of pollutant types and time periods Short-term models – for a few hours to a few days; worst case episode conditions Long-term models – to predict seasonal or annual average concentrations; health effects due to exposure Classified by Non-reactive models – pollutants such as SO 2 and CO Reactive models – pollutants such as O 3 , NO 2 , etc.
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08/12/09 9 AQ Models Classified by coordinate system used Grid-based Region divided into an array of cells
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