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Atmospheric Effects - Chap 2.2.1-2.2.2 4.3-4.7 Atmospheric...

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08/12/09 1 Atmospheric Effects Smog and Haze Urban climate Atmospheric deposition: Acid deposition (see Welfare Effects) Hg deposition Stratospheric ozone depletion Global warming Chap 2.2.1-2.2.2, 4.3-4.7
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08/12/09 2 Smog Originate from the unpleasant combination of smoke from coal combustion and fog What are the important parameters in determining O 3 level?
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08/12/09 3 Generalized Scheme for the Formation of Photochemical Smog
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08/12/09 4 Smog over Los Angeles Basin
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08/12/09 5 Los Angeles-type Smog Is exacerbated by Large number of sunny days Large population of motor vehicles Topographical limitations on air flow Frequent subsidence inversions Due to the presence of NO 2 , LA-type smog is brown Is also a problem in Houston, Denver, Mexico City What will be your strategy to reduce LA-type/O 3 formation, if you are an EPA administer?
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08/12/09 6 Relative Reactivities of HCs and CO with OH
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08/12/09 7 Haze Moderate visibility reduction associated with atmospheric pollutants (mainly SOx emission) Common in many American/European cities: e.g. in Midwest, Northeast and Southeast Broad regional distribution Can be seen by satellites Smoky Mountains Clear Days Hazy days
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08/12/09 8 Haze in US http://www.gulfcoast-homes.com/images/palm_island.jpg http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/environment/ New_IDEA_Air_Quality_Monitoring.html http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/featu res/2005/02/02_bensonl_badairday/ Southeast (e.g. FL) Midwest Minneapolis earthobservatory.nasa.gov Northeast
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08/12/09 9 Haze in Southeast Asia Forest fire www.ens-newswire.com/.../2002-11-08-06.asp Expands over dozens of countries http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/windows/htmls/htmls/vincent2.htm http://www.iribnews.ir/Full_en.asp?news_id=219535&n=33 http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/world/20
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08/12/09 10 Pristine Air Good visibility in areas of high air quality (visual range of 60 – 100 miles) Characteristic of West and Southwest Concern related to areas around national parks (e.g. Grand Canyon), monuments, and wilderness areas Plume blight a major concern; power plant emissions affect visibility for tens of kms Reduction in the distinctness of land forms and vistas www.lakepowell.net/asiandust.htm Glen Canyon NRA www.lakepowell.net/asiandust.htm
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08/12/09 11 Arctic Haze Reported initially in 1950s over Barrow, Alaska Has intensified over the past 40 years Covers a linear expanse of 800 to 1300 km Occurs at altitude’s below 9 km Maximum intensity at approximately 4-5 km Results from pollutant transport from Siberia and northern Europe Causal pollutants- SO x and elemental carbon Sulfate concentrations 10 to 20 times background levels Exacerbated by Inefficient pollutant removal processes Very steep inversion layer www.terradaily.com/reports/ ...
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