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Unformatted text preview: Equilibrium & Kinetics Equilibrium & Kinetics ENV 4101 Elements of Air Pollution ENV 5105 Foundations of Air Pollution Prepared by: Ying Li Equilibrium & Kinetics • Equilibrium • Equilibrium constant • Free energy • Temperature effect • Kinetics • Order of Reactions (1 st , 2 nd , and pseudo 1 st order) • Air Pollution Reactions • Lifetime, Halflife • Temperature effect (Arrenhius Equation) Equilibrium Constant dD cC bB aA + ↔ + b a f [B] [A] k rate forward = d c b [D] [C] k rate backward = d c b b a f [D] [C] k [B] [A] k = b a d c [B] [A] [D] [C] = = b f eq k k K Equilibrium constant Consider Reaction: Definitions: TS H TS PV U G = + = PV U H + = Internal energy, U : the total of the kinetic energy due to the motion of molecules (translational, rotational & vibrational) for a closed system. Enthalpy or heat content, H : description of thermodynamic potential of a system, which can be used to calculate the "useful" work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system under constant conditions. Gibbs free energy, G : The greatest amount of mechanical work which can be obtained from a given quantity of a certain substance in a given initial state, without increasing its total volume or allowing heat to pass to or from external bodies....
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 Spring '08
 Wu
 Thermodynamics, Enthalpy, Reaction, Pollution, Equilibrium & Kinetics

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