Health Effects of Air Pollution

Health Effects of Air Pollution - Health Effects of Air...

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    Health Effects of Air Pollution Wednesday, February 6, 2006 ENV 4101/5105 Godish Chapter 5 and Online Respiratory Health Module (http://aerosol.ees.ufl.edu/default.htm) For extra reference: EPA http://www.epa.gov/air/urbanair/
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    Introduction Methods of Exposure Criteria Air Pollutants: Review: NAAQS from CAA Primary standards Secondary standards Hazardous Air Pollutants: Regulated under 1990 CAA Amendments Some other important health aspects Bioaerosols, medicinal purposes
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    Exposure Chronic Acute Air Pollution Episode Dependent on local conditions Epidemiological studies Statistical relationship between environmental factors and human disease Challenging Toxicological studies Pollutant interactions Smog Episode in NYC, 1963 National Archives, photo by Chester Higgins
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    Respiratory System Via inhalation/respiratory as well as eye/skin Three parts of respiratory system Naso-pharyngeal (HAR) Tracheo-bronchial (TBR) Pulmonary-Alveolar (GER) Lungs portal of entry Purpose GER SA > 75 m 2 Dr. Owens, UF ABE2062 Course http://faculty.abe.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_20/lect_20.htm
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    Respiratory System Natural protection mechanisms Naso-pharyngeal (HAR) Tracheo-bronchial (TBR) Mucociliary “escalator” Bronchial constriction Pulmonary-Alveolar (GER) Macrophages (phagocytosis) No ciliary action Fisher and Paykel Health Care http://www.fphcare.com/humidification/foradults2.asp Question: Why doesn’t the pulmonary- alveolar region have more natural protection mechanisms?
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    Criteria Air Pollutants: Particulate Matter Very small solids/liquids that remain suspended Causes: materials handling, combustion processes, gas conversion reactions Main sources: Pollutant Primary Stds. Averaging Times Secondary Stds. Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) Revoked(2) Annual(2) (Arith. Mean) 150 µg/m 3 24-hour(3) Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) 15.0 µg/m 3 Annual(4) (Arith. Mean) Same as Primary 35 µg/m 3 24-hour(5)
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    Criteria Air Pollutants: Particulate Matter Two possible fates Factors affecting fate Aerodynamic properties Physiological behavior Adapted from Universite Laval http://www.theses.ulaval.ca/ 2004/21789/ch01.html Methods of Deposition Impaction* Interception* Diffusion* Electrostatic Attraction Gravitational Settling Which mechanisms will work better for large particles? For small particles?
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    Criteria Air Pollutants: Particulate Matter Major contributors Impaction Predominant for d p 3 μ m PM 2.5 regulations Primarily in HAR or TBR Visual example: http://aerosol.ees.ufl.edu/respiratory/section Brownian diffusion Predominant for d p 0.5 μ m Visual example: http://aerosol.ees.ufl.edu/respiratory/section Gravitational Settling 3-5 μ m (V TS d ar 2 ) Distal/horizontal regions of bronchial airways Visual example: http://aerosol.ees.ufl.edu/respiratory/s Minimal effect Electrostatic Attraction
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Health Effects of Air Pollution - Health Effects of Air...

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