Welfare Effects of Air Pollution - Full

Welfare Effects of Air Pollution - Full - Welfare Effects...

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    Welfare Effects of Air Pollution Monday, February 11, 2008 ENV 4101/5105 Godish Chapter 6 For extra reference: EPA http://www.epa.gov/air/urbanair/
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    Introduction Criteria Air Pollutants: Review: NAAQS from CAA Primary standards Secondary standards Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hg, dioxins, etc Regulated under 1990 CAA Amendments Some other important welfare aspects Bioaerosols, Fluorides May not have specific regulations What are welfare effects?
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    Criteria Air Pollutants: Ozone Cause: ______________________ Source: ______________________ “Good O 3 ” vs. “Bad O 3 Primary component of photochemical smog Sunlight and hot weather Summertime pollutant Mostly local impact Los Angeles, Wikipeida, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles_(CA)
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    Criteria Air Pollutants: Ozone Unpleasant appearance in urban cities photochemical smog Deterioration of synthetic rubber, textiles, paints Gates Corporation US EPA in How Stuff Works Website, http://science.howstuffworks.com/ozone-pollution.htm
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    Criteria Air Pollutants: Ozone Leaf damage Chlorophyll damage: “flecks” Discoloration Reducing crop yields and forest growth US damage to crops est. as 1 billion dollars annually (1985) 25% reduction: +$1.7 billion 40% reduction: +$2.5 billion Loss of forest in US and Europe Tobacco leaf which has sustained ozone damage http://www.lambtonwildlife.com/nature_notes_98/tobac.fld/tobacp.htm Ozone damage on white pine (Photograph courtesy of A. Heagle) NC State, http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/pp/notes/Ornamental/odin19/od19.htm Ponderosa Pine (left: undamaged; right: damaged) Image from Miller et al (1996) USFS PSW-GTR-155 http://www.cbesurvey.org/aplv/panek/research.htm
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    Criteria Air Pollutants: NO x Cause: Source: Regional impacts Acid precursor (covered later) Ozone precursor Absorbs blue-green λ Plant damage Necrosis at 2-10 ppm Growth retardation at 0.5 ppm Ecosystem Eutrophication Nitrophilous Brown haze over Fort Collins, Photo by M. Osecky http://ccc.atmos.colostate.edu/~hail/cool/polution/pages/ftc_12-19-2003.htm
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    Criteria Air Pollutants: SO x Cause: Source: Regional impacts Acid precursor (covered later) Damage to plants Chlorosis: Necrosis: Plasmolysis: Damage to animals Similar to health effects in humans Paper: converted to H 2 SO 4 , brittling paper Leather: initiates cracking Lettuce with discoloration due to chlorosis UC IPM, photo by Jack Kelly Clark http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/L/D-CC-LIYV-FS.006.html http://www.dias.kvl.dk/Plantvirology/esymptoms/symp-color.html
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    Criteria Air Pollutants: NO x and SO x Acid precipitation Non-localized pollution Normal precip: pH ~ 5 to 5.6 Acid precip: pH ~ 3 to 4.5 HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 Form acids in atmosphere
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2011 for the course ENV 4101 taught by Professor Wu during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Welfare Effects of Air Pollution - Full - Welfare Effects...

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