mobile - Mobile Sources Reading: Chap 15 9/13/11 Types of...

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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate Aerosol & Particulate Research 11 Mobile Sources Types of mobile sources Impact of mobile sources Emission standards Types of engines: gasoline vs diesel, 4-strokes vs 2-strokes Emission Control: technology and policy Add-on Control Device – catalytic converter Hybrid Vehicles and Fuel Cells Reading: Chap 15
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 22 Gasoline Automobiles Diesel Trucks/Buses Aircraft Q: Others? Monitor Number Distance to receptors Non-steady: cold-start emission, idling, stop & go Ship track resulting from stack emission http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov Types of mobile sources Impact of Mobile sources vs Stationary sources
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 33 Emission Standards Asif Faiz et al., 1996, Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles CAA 1977 CAAA 1990 CAAA
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 44 Q: Gasoline vehicles for ULEV and ZEV? Q: NMOG?
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 55 Heavy Duty Vehicles For the same power output, only 70% mass compared to gasoline engines Less volatile, Lower CO2 emission Lower operating cost, 2/3 of an equivalent gasoline truck Lloyd and Cackette, JAWMA , 51 , 2001, p809- 847. Q: Gasoline penalty in Europe? VMT: Vehicle Miles Traveled
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 66 Heavy Duty Vehicles (cont.) Contains S (500 ppmw): new regulation just kicked in 2006 Lower operating speed, slower thrust/acceleration Lean exhaust: catalytic converters don’t work Also standards for PM, smoke opacity Account for 5% of vehicles, account for 35% visibility reduction; Off-road vehicles emit 2 times PM (regulated in CA from 1996) Soot from diesel engines is the 2nd largest contributor to global warming Relative health risk of diesel exhaust exposure ~ 1.4 Q: Emission regulations for diesel engines?
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate Heavy-Duty Truck and Bus Engine Emission Standards 77 HC CO NOx PM Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Engines 1.3 15.5 4.0 0.10 Urban Bus Engines 1.3 15.5 4.0 0.05 EPA 1998 Standards NMHC THC CO NOx PM Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Engines (1994) 1.2 1,3 15.5 5.0 0.10 Urban Bus Engines (1996) 1.2 1.3 15.5 4.0 0.05 CA Standards EPA Standards for MY 2004 NMHC+NOx NMHC Option 1 2.4 n/a Option 2 2.5 0.5
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 88 Motorcycles Small number in US (0.6% of HC, 0.1% NOx and <0.1% of PM of all mobile sources); large in developing countries Higher emissions per mile than a car or even a SUV Class Engine Size (cc) Implementation Date HC (g/km) HC+NOx (g/km) CO (g/km) I < 170 2006 1.0 - 12.0 II 170-279 2006 1.0 - 12.0 III > 280 2006 - 1.4 12.0 2010 - 0.8 12.0 Highway Motorcycle Exhaust Emission Standards http://www.epa.gov/otaq/roadbike.htm Thailand Tutu
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 99 4-Stroke Internal Combustion Premixed gasoline vapor Combustion occurs every two revolutions Animation: http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aerojava/pic6-3.htm
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 1010 Octane Rating A measure of gasoline’s resistance to engine knock (rattling or pinging sound in cylinders due to premature burning) Heptane: 0 Iso-octane: 100 Anti-knock agents: Tetraethyl lead (Pb(C2H5)4), highly branched alkanes, aromatics (R+M)/2:
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mobile - Mobile Sources Reading: Chap 15 9/13/11 Types of...

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