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Atmospheric Aerosol

Atmospheric Aerosol - ð¾ – ª*Щ sE ENV 6130 Spring...

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Unformatted text preview: ð¾ –» ª*Щ sE 9/13/11 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 Atmospheric Aerosols Jiaying Li 04/06/2010 9/13/11 11 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 9/13/11 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 • Source • Natural -- background aerosol • Anthropogenic -- urban aerosol • Size distribution – three modes • Life time • Chemical composition • Effects • Global warming v.s. Whitehouse effects • Atmospheric haze • Precipitation 9/13/11 22 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 9/13/11 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 What is the largest and most important atmospheric aerosol? Clouds 9/13/11 33 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 9/13/11 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 § Primary vs. Secondary Particles § Mobile vs. Stationary § Combustion vs. Noncombustion § Outdoor vs. Indoor § Natural vs. Anthropogenic Classification of Aerosol Sources 9/13/11 44 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 9/13/11 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 Natural Background Aerosol Natural Sources: volcano, sea salts, vegetation emission, forest fire, soil erosion, electrical storm, etc. http://desk.zol.com.cn/pic_292008.html http://tupian.hudong.com/a0_13_55_01300000201199122481551435311_jpg.html 9/13/11 55 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 9/13/11 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 Major volcanos can increase the stratospheric particulate concentration by two orders of magnitude. The Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991 injected 14-20 Tg of SO2 into the stratosphere, causing the aerosol concentration to increase from 2-5 μg/m3 to 20-100 μg/m3. Before this eruption the particle size distribution had a CMD of 0.14μm and a GSD of 1.6; after, it had a CMD of 0.66 μm and a GSD of 1.5. The only significant anthropogenic source of particles in the stratosphere is soot from high-altitude aircraft. But this represents less than 1 percent of the total stratospheric aerosol. http://tupian.hudong.com/a0_13_55_01300 9/13/11 66 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 9/13/11 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 Ø Over land, about 10 ion pairs (a positive and a negative ion) are formed in every cubic centimeter every second. These ions attach to aerosol particles and recombine with each other at a rate that yields an equilibrium concentration of small ions of 100- 5000/cm3 with an average value of 800/cm3. Ø Most of the natural photochemical smog is formed by the action of sunlight on isoprene and monoterpene vapor emissions from trees. Ø Total sea salt flux from ocean to atmosphere is estimated to be 3300 Tg/yr (IPCC). 9/13/11 77 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 9/13/11 ENV 6130, Spring 2010 Clean air?...
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Atmospheric Aerosol - ð¾ – ª*Щ sE ENV 6130 Spring...

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