global aerosol - 9/13/11 Global Aerosol Y u n s e o k Im...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/13/11 Global Aerosol Y u n s e o k Im Try to read and relax your neck !! 9/13/11 Content Aerosol Emission / Distribution Global Aerosol Transport The Effect of Aerosol on Earth- Aerosol From Volcanic eruption Global scale Research Method Introduction of large scale model 9/13/11 Aerosol Emission / Distribution William C. Hinds, Aerosol Technology 2nd ed, p.305 ANNUAL MEAN PM2.5 CONCENTRATIONS (2002) derived from MODIS satellite instrument data Jacob et al. EPS[2000] GLOBAL ESTIMATE OF DUST EMISSION (2001) Fairlie et al. [2007] g m-2 y- 1 The majority of soil-derived dust particles is lifted into the atmosphere by wind in arid and semi-arid regions (1/3 of Earths land area). Fine dust particles are produced by grain saltation Global annual mean dust production: 1000-5000 Tg / a-1 Google satellite image 1. Antarctic Desert (Antarctica) 2. Arctic 3. Sahara (Africa) 4. Arabian Desert (Middle East) 5. Gobi Desert (Asia) 6. Kalahari Desert (Africa) 7. Patagonian Desert 8. Great Victoria Desert (Australia) 9. Syrian Desert (Middle East) 10. Great Basin Desert (North America) www.militec-1.com/emails/img/dust_storm.jpg Dust Storm MEAN SEA SALT AEROSOL CONCENTRATIONS Alexander et al. [2005] Lower marine boundary layer (0-100 m) Annual global mass emission rate: 1300 Tg/a-1 (Andreae, 1995) 5900 Tg/a-1 (Tegen, 1997) Typically, number and mass concentrations of sea-salt aerosol increase with wind speed Large uncertainty (one order of magnitude) GLOBAL SULFUR EMISSION TO THE ATMOSPHERE Chin et al. [2000] 2001 estimates (Tg S yr-1): Industrial 57 Volcanoes 5 Ocean 15 Biomass burning 1 GLOBAL SULFUR BUDGET [Chin et al., 1996] (flux terms in Tg S yr-1) Phytoplankton (CH3)2 S SO2 = 1.3d (DMS) = 1.0d OH NO 3 Volcanoes Combustion Smelters SO42- = 3.9d 22 10 64 OH cloud 42 8 18 4 dep 27 dry 20 wet dep 6 dry 44 wet H2SO4(g ) H2SO4-HNO3-NH3-H2O AEROSOL SOURCES GLOB- AL I n d u s t r i a l V o l c a n o e s B i o m a s s b u r n i n g O c e a n s Sulf ur 78 Tg S yr-1 Livestock Fertilizer Humans Industry Biofuels Soils/vegetation Oceans Biomass burning Ammo nia 55 Tg S yr-1 F o s s i l f u e l F e r t i l i z e r B i o f u e l L i g h t n i n g S o i l s B i o m a s s b u r n i n g N O x 43 Tg S yr-1 Jacob et al. EPS[2000] BLACK CARBON EMISSIONS Emissions from-fuel combustion (fossil fuels and biofuels)-open biomass burning (forest fires, savanna burning and outdoor cooking) The uncertainty is about 100% or more....
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2011 for the course ENV 6130 taught by Professor Wu during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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global aerosol - 9/13/11 Global Aerosol Y u n s e o k Im...

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