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Introduction - ENV 6146/6932/4932 Atmospheric Modeling...

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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 11 ENV 6146/6932/4932 Atmospheric Modeling
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 22 Q: What is the level of my exposure to these emissions? Is my family safe? Where is safe? How about the adverse impact on the environment (plants, animals, buildings)? Q: Any other real examples?
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 33 Newberry/Suwannee Cement Plant Pb concentration along highway Visibilit y Landfill gas Chemical Spill Military Operation BP Oil Rig Explosion
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 44 Q: What are the factors that affect the exposure to the emissions? Temporal and spatial emission rates Terrain Chemical transformation Equilibrium between particles and gases Pollutant transport Vertical Mixing
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 55 Source Dispersio n Model Receptor Model Emission Model Meteorolo gical Model Chemical Model Temporal and spatial emission rates Topography Chemical Transformation Pollutant Transport Equilibrium between Particles and gases Vertical Mixing Air Quality Models
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 66 Emission Model Estimates temporal and spatial emission rates based on activity level, emission rate per unit of activity and meteorology Meteorological Model Describes transport, dispersion, vertical mixing and moisture in time and space Chemical Model Describes transformation of directly emitted particles and gases to secondary particles and gases; also estimates the equilibrium between gas and particles for volatile species
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 77 Source Dispersion Model Uses the outputs from the previous models to estimate concentrations measured at receptors; includes mathematical simulations of transport, dispersion, vertical mixing, deposition and chemical models to represent transformation. Gaussian Plume, Puff and Grid Models. Receptor Model Infers contributions from different primary source emissions or precursors from multivariate measurements taken at one ore more receptor sites. Chemical Mass Balance (CMB), Time Series, Neural Networks Q: When are model applications required for regulatory purposes?
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate 88 Regulatory Application of Models PSD : Prevention of Significant Deterioration of Air Quality in relatively clean areas (e.g. National parks) SIP : State Implementation Plan revisions for existing sources and for New Source Reviews (NSR) Q: Which type of model is better? Which one should I use?
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 99 Guideline on Air Quality Models Revised 40 CFR Pt 51, App. W. – effective 11/9/2005 ( http://www.epa.gov/scram001/guidance/guide/appw_05.pdf) Overview of Model Use Recommended Air Quality Models – Preferred and Alternative Traditional Stationary Source Models Model use in Complex Terrain Models for O3, PM, CO and NO2 Other Model Requirements General Modeling Considerations Model Input Data Accuracy and Uncertainty of Models Regulatory Application of Models
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9/13/11 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 1010
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