Chapters 1-4 - 1 Confidenceiscard Theory Confidence...

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Discard Theory Hypotheses Confidence in theory increases Confidence in theory decreases Empirical Research Revise and refine theory Theory 1 History of Psychology 08/26/2010 Definition of Psychology o The scientific study of mind and behavior, both human and nonhuman o A ffect, B ehavior, C ondition History of Psychology o Wundt – Father of Experimental Psychology December 1879, first experiment o Philosophy: “love of wisdom”; most other sciences have roots Empiricism: knowledge is gained through experience Aristotle “Tabula rasa” – blank slate John Locke George Berkeley: If a tree falls in the forest David Hume Rationalism: knowledge is gained through reasoning; Descartes Nativism: knowledge is innate; Plato Nature vs. Nurture Contribution of biology vs. experience Debate: Aristotle and Plato Descartes and Locke Mind-Body Problem – how are they related? Hippocrates – mind and body are the same Plato – mind and body are separate entities Aristotle – mind and body are the same; mind is in the heart Descartes – dualism, mind and body are distinct; body = matter, mind = spirit, control body through pineal gland o Physiology: scientific study of biological processes; physiological work showed mind and body are distinct Phrenology – 1808 Flourens – 1800s Phineas Gage – 1848 Paul Broca – 1861 Schools of Psychology o Old School Structuralism – used introspection to explore basic “structural” elements of the human mind Wundt Functionalism – an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior; inspired by Darwin William James o Current Schools Behaviorism – the scientific study of observable behavior; rejected mentalistic; emphasizes nurture over nature Follow laws like gravity, operant and classical conditioning
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2 Learn by experience Dominated 1920 – 1960 Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Sigmund Freud Unconscious conflict causes behavior Consciousness is “tip of iceberg” Humanistic – emphasizes uniqueness of human experience Emphasized need for love and acceptance Assumes humans rise above biological urges; conscious and rational Gestalt – “The whole is different from the sum of its parts” Max Wertheimer Perception is dependent upon context Mind imposes organization on what it perceives Biological – behavior determined by physiology Humans are animals, biological basis to behaviors Traits served as a purpose to aid in survival *** Cognitive – higher mental processes (Dominates) Mind is a computer, information processing Sensation, perception, attention, memory, decision making Cognitive neuroscience Evolutionary – studies behavior in terms of adaptive value Natural selection – born with traits to help in survival Sexual selection – successful mating
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This note was uploaded on 09/12/2011 for the course PSYC 1001 taught by Professor Duffie during the Fall '10 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Chapters 1-4 - 1 Confidenceiscard Theory Confidence...

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