Chapters 5-7 - 1 Memory 09/23/2010 Memory o The ability to...

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1 Memory 09/23/2010 Memory o The ability to store and retrieve information over time o How does information get into memory? Encoding – a process of transforming what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory o How is information maintained in memory? Storage – process of maintaining information in memory over time o How is information pulled back out of memory? Retrieval – process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored Encoding o Process of transforming what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory o Elaborative Encoding Relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory Good for studying – encode information in relation to what you already know o Visual Imagery Encoding Storing new information by converting it to pictures Brain is better at remembering visual information o Organizational Encoding Categorizing by noticing relationships among series of items o Encoding Failure The failure to pay attention to and process information into short-term memory Which penny is real? Storage o Process of maintaining information in memory over time o Stage Theory of Memory - memories pass through several learning stages Sensory Storage Short-term and Working Memory Storage Long-term Storage o Sensory input: senses gather information from the environment o Sensory memory: a representation of sensory input is created Sensory Memory o Place in which sensory information is kept for a few seconds or less o Iconic store Visual Less than 1 second o Echoic store Auditory Around 5 seconds
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2 o Sperling (1960) – Does all information get into sensory storage? Flashing letters and boxes experiment Everything gets into sensory memory Unintentional and incidental Very brief Ex. Basketball players and door experiment Attention and Memory o “Everyone knows what attention is” – William James (1890) o Alertness o Ignoring distractions o Selecting relevant from irrelevant information o Handling multiple sources of information simultaneously o Focuses our awareness Gather detailed information from the senses Select details that are important and filters out others o Attention is a limited resource Focus is on the most important information o Only a specific amount of information from our senses can be translated into a representation of an event (attention as a spotlight) Short-Term Memory (STM) o Kept for more than a few seconds, but less than a minute o Limited in how LONG Information in STM fades after 20-30 seconds (without practicing) Rehearsal: keeping information in STM by mentally repeating it o Limited in how MUCH STM has limited capacity storage STM capacity (or span) is 7± 2 items Chunking: can keep more information in STM by clumping it o Memory in Order In simple memory tasks, some words are typically remembered better than others
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This note was uploaded on 09/12/2011 for the course PSYC 1001 taught by Professor Duffie during the Fall '10 term at Georgia Tech.

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Chapters 5-7 - 1 Memory 09/23/2010 Memory o The ability to...

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